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Quercus palustris - (Quercus bicolor) - Acer rubrum / Vaccinium corymbosum / Osmunda cinnamomea Wet Forest
Translated Name: Pin Oak - (Swamp White Oak ) - Red Maple / Highbush Blueberry / Cinnamon Fern Wet Forest
Common Name: Northeastern Pin Oak - Swamp White Oak Wet Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006240
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association comprises a perched hardwood swamp occurring in the northeastern United States from New Hampshire to Virginia. These are closed to partially open, deciduous, seasonally flooded forests. They occur in basin areas that are seasonally wet (winter and early spring) with a shallow, perched water table, but tend to be dry in late summer and early fall. There is usually pronounced hummock-and-hollow microtopography. They are found on sandy loams or clayey soils of glacial lakeplains, or on soils with impermeable subsoils in unglaciated regions. There is generally some layer that impedes drainage. The canopy is codominated by Quercus palustris and/or Quercus bicolor and Acer rubrum. Common associates include Nyssa sylvatica and occasionally Tsuga canadensis or Carya spp. The shrub layer may be sparse or dense and contains Ilex verticillata, Vaccinium corymbosum, Viburnum dentatum, Cephalanthus occidentalis, and Kalmia angustifolia. The sparse herb layer may include Osmunda cinnamomea, Scirpus cyperinus, Thelypteris palustris, Thelypteris simulata, Carex frankii, Glyceria striata, Isoetes spp., Carex crinita, Onoclea sensibilis, and Osmunda regalis.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Vegetation tentatively assigned to this association was classified through analysis of a regional dataset assembled for the NCR vegetation mapping project. The type was represented by nine Maryland and Virginia plots. Composition of this southern variant differs somewhat from the existing description but is conceptually similar. Although six states to the north of Maryland and Virginia have recognized this type, substantial data from across this range are lacking (L. Sneddon pers. comm.). Therefore, at present, this association represents a broad concept that may have to be split once variation over its range is more fully understood.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Central Hardwood Swamp Forest
Group Central Hardwood Flatwoods & Swamp Forest
Alliance North-Central Wet Oak Flatwoods & Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004643 Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor / Viburnum prunifolium / Leersia virginica - Impatiens capensis Wet Forest
CEGL006110 Liquidambar styraciflua - Acer rubrum - Quercus phellos / Leucothoe racemosa Swamp Forest
CEGL006185 Quercus palustris - Acer rubrum / Carex grayi - Geum canadense Wet Forest
CEGL006497 Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor / Carex tribuloides - Carex radiata - (Carex squarrosa) Wet Forest
CEGL007399 Quercus palustris - (Fraxinus nigra) / Lindera benzoin / Carex bromoides Wet Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Red maple - Pin oak (Acer rubrum - Quercus palustris) seasonally flooded forests Broader   Metzler and Barrett 2006
Delaware Northeastern Pin Oak-Swamp White Oak Forest Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Massachusetts Black Gum - Pin Oak - Swamp White Oak Perched Swamp Equivalent   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Swamp White Oak Basin Swamp Equivalent   Sperduto 2000
New Jersey Quercus (palustris, bicolor) - Acer rubrum / Osmunda cinnamomea Forest Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
New York Red Maple-Hardwood Swamp Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
New York Red maple-swamp white oak swamp Intersects Somewhat certain Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Oak - Mixed Hardwood Palustrine Forest Broader Certain Zimmerman et al. 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Quercus palustris seasonally flooded forests
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
Related Concept Name: Quercus palustris - Acer rubrum - Liquidambar styraciflua / Vaccinium (fuscatum, formosum) Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Bottomland Oak - Hardwood Palustrine Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
Related Concept Name: Tupelo - Swamp White Oak - Pin Oak Association
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Searcy, K. B., H. Lanza and A. Park. 1994. Inventory and characterization of natural communities with a tupelo-swamp white oak-pin oak association in the Connecticut River Valley, Hampshire and Franklin counties, Massachusetts. Biology Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Related Concept Name: Upland Depression Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.700 North-Central Interior Wet Flatwoods
CES203.520 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Basin Swamp and Wet Hardwood Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (14Jul2016)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DCpotentially occurs, DE, MA, MD, NH, NJ, NY, PA, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This vegetation occurs in southern New England south to Maryland and northern Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This seasonally flooded pin oak community occurs in the northeastern United States. These are closed to partially open, deciduous, seasonally flooded forests codominated by Quercus palustris and Acer rubrum. Common associates include Quercus bicolor, Nyssa sylvatica, and occasionally Tsuga canadensis or Carya spp. The shrub layer may be sparse or dense and contains Ilex verticillata, Vaccinium corymbosum, and Viburnum dentatum. The sparse herb layer may include Osmunda cinnamomea, Scirpus cyperinus, Thelypteris palustris, Thelypteris simulata, Carex frankii, Glyceria striata, Isoetes spp., Carex crinita, Onoclea sensibilis, and Osmunda regalis. Occurrences at the southern end of the range in Maryland and northern Virginia are generally very species-poor, with an overstory dominated by Quercus palustris (rarely Quercus bicolor), Acer rubrum, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Species of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium fuscatum, and Vaccinium formosum) are the most characteristic shrubs. Herbs are very sparse.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus bicolor G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus palustris G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Ilex verticillata G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Osmunda cinnamomea G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This vegetation is found in basin areas that are seasonally wet (winter and early spring) with a shallow, perched water table, but which tend to be dry in late summer and early fall. There is usually pronounced hummock-and-hollow microtopography. They are found on sandy loams or clayey soils of glacial lakeplains, or on soils with impermeable subsoils in unglaciated regions. Although substrates are variable, all generally have some layer that impedes drainage and may receive groundwater seepage. Soils collected from Maryland and Virginia plots have very low pH and base cation levels.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group/Central Appalachian Planning Team, mod. S.L. Neid
Element Description Edition Date: 29May2007
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid and G.P. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008a. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gateway National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/107. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 283 pp.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011b. Analysis of Coastal Plain / Outer Piedmont bottomlands and non-alluvial wetlands in Virginia, 400 plots. In-house analysis, January 2011. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Golet, F. C., A. J. K. Calhoun, W. R. DeRagon, D. J. Lowry, and A. J. Gold. 1993. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated Northeast: A community profile. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 151 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. 2001b. Soil survey of Gateway National Recreation Area, New York and New Jersey. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and USDI National Park Service, Gateway National Recreation Area in partnership with Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station and New York City Soil and Water Conservation District.

  • Searcy, K. B., H. Lanza and A. Park. 1994. Inventory and characterization of natural communities with a tupelo-swamp white oak-pin oak association in the Connecticut River Valley, Hampshire and Franklin counties, Massachusetts. Biology Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

  • Sperduto, D. D. 2000a. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. Near final unformatted draft without pictures and illustrations; includes upland classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord, NH. 127 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D. 2000b. A classification of wetland natural communities in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, Department of Resources and Economic Development, Division of Forests and Lands, Concord, NH. 156 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2000. Classification of natural communities of Massachusetts. July 2000 draft. Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2001. Classification of natural communities of Massachusetts. September 2001 draft. Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.

  • Zimmerman, E. A. 2011f. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Oak - Mixed Hardwood Palustrine Forest Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=16019] (accessed January 31, 2012)

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]


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