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Quercus muehlenbergii - Juniperus virginiana / Schizachyrium scoparium - Manfreda virginica Wooded Grassland
Translated Name: Chinquapin Oak - Eastern Red-cedar / Little Bluestem - False Aloe Wooded Grassland
Common Name: Central Limestone Glade
Unique Identifier: CEGL005131
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This limestone glade or barrens community is found in the central and eastern United States. Stands occur on gentle to steep slopes of hills, knobs, ridges, bluffs along streams, and broad terraces. Aspect is variable, but this vegetation is generally best developed on southern and western exposures. Parent material is limestone, cherty limestone, dolomite, or calcareous shale which is exposed at the surface, resulting in a very shallow, well-drained substrate. Soils are neutral to alkaline, shallow to moderately deep, and contain a homogenous mixture of rock fragments of various sizes. Herbaceous cover is very uneven, ranging from very dense in some areas to absent in others. Some dominant or characteristic grasses include Schizachyrium scoparium, Sorghastrum nutans, Aristida spp., and Sporobolus compositus. In deeper soil areas Andropogon gerardii may be present. At some sites Bouteloua curtipendula is present, but it may be rare or absent at others. Forbs vary in dominance by site. Quercus muehlenbergii and Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana can form a sparse canopy. Quercus stellata may be common in parts of the range. Other scattered trees which may be present include Cercis canadensis, Fraxinus quadrangulata, Quercus velutina, Quercus alba, Quercus marilandica, and Liriodendron tulipifera. The subcanopy is absent or very sparse. Commonly encountered shrubs include Celtis tenuifolia, Cornus florida, Ulmus alata, Rhus aromatica, Rhus copallinum, and Symphoricarpos orbiculatus. This vegetation may exist as more extensive areas, or in some southeastern cases, it may be limited to a more narrow zone between vegetation dominated by woody plants and that dominated by annual grasses.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: In Indiana, Quercus stellata is typical, Bouteloua curtipendula is rare, and Sorghastrum nutans is common. In Illinois, Sorghastrum nutans is more common than Bouteloua curtipendula. This type was developed in the Midwest and attributed to various southeastern states. Its relation to other eastern and southeastern alkaline glades needs further investigation. In Tennessee, this community might be called a limestone barren, as the term "glade" is restricted to bedrock-defined openings that are mostly flat, pavement-like, and dominated by annual grasses rather than perennial ones. In Indiana, this community is commonly called a cedar glade because stands of Juniperus virginiana border many of the sites of the community. Juniperus virginiana, which occurs with Quercus stellata, was probably rare in this community before the time of European settlement and consequent fire suppression. Quercus muehlenbergii - Quercus (alba, velutina) - (Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana) Driftless Bluff Woodland (CEGL002144) is the more northern equivalent of this type. In southeastern Ohio, this type also contains a distinctive zone tracked as a separate type, the Juniperus virginiana / Schizachyrium scoparium - Silphium terebinthinaceum var. luciae-brauniae - Carex juniperorum - Castilleja coccinea Wooded Grassland (CEGL004464). In Kentucky, examples of the xeric Central Limestone Glade are restricted to unusual geologic conditions (outcrops and shallow soil over limestone) and are widely scattered in the central part of the state.

In the Ozark Hills region of southern Illinois, a variant of this type occurs on very steep slopes. The herbaceous layer is quite variable because of soil erosion.


Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.B - Temperate & Boreal Grassland & Shrubland
Formation 2.B.2 - Temperate Grassland & Shrubland
Division 2.B.2.Nc - Eastern North American Grassland & Shrubland
Macrogroup Central Interior Calcareous Scrub & Grassland
Group Central Interior Alkaline Open Glade & Barrens
Alliance Little Bluestem Perennial Grass Glade

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002144 Quercus muehlenbergii - Quercus (alba, velutina) - (Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana) Driftless Bluff Woodland
CEGL002149 Quercus stellata - Quercus marilandica - Quercus velutina - Carya texana / Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland
CEGL002391 Quercus stellata - Quercus marilandica / Schizachyrium scoparium Wooded Grassland
CEGL004267 Quercus muehlenbergii - (Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana) Unglaciated Bluff Woodland
CEGL004464 Juniperus virginiana / Schizachyrium scoparium - Silphium terebinthinaceum var. luciae-brauniae - Carex juniperorum - Castilleja coccinea Wooded Grassland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Quercus muehlenbergii - Juniperus virginiana / Schizachyrium scoparium - Manfreda virginica Wooded Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Illinois Limestone Glade Equivalent   White and Madany 1978
Indiana Barrens - bedrock limestone Equivalent   Homoya et al. 1988
Kentucky Limestone Slope Glade Broader   Evans 1991
Ohio Little Bluestem Prairie Broader   ONHD unpubl. data
Tennessee Quercus muehlenbergii - Juniperus virginiana / Schizachyrium scoparium - Manfreda virginica Wooded Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Juniperus virginiana / Schizachyrium scoparium - Bouteloua curtipendula - Sisyrinchium albidum - Packera millefolia Wooded Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.
Related Concept Name: Barrens type
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Hutchison, M. D. 1994. The barrens of the Midwest: An historical perspective. Castanea 59(3):195-203.
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Hutchison, M. D., S. Olson, and T. Vogt. 1986. A survey of the barrens region in Massac and Pope counties, Illinois. Unpublished survey. 63 pp.
Related Concept Name: Central and Eastern Grassland and Forest Combinations: 83: Cedar Glades (Quercus-Juniperus-Sporobolus)
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Küchler, A. W. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States. American Geographic Society Special Publication 36. New York, NY. 116 pp.
Related Concept Name: Eastern Redcedar: 46
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Limestone Slope Glade
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Evans, M. 1991. Kentucky ecological communities. Draft report to the Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission. 19 pp.
Related Concept Name: Post Oak - Blackjack Oak: 40
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Terrestrial: Savanna
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1985. Global Vertebrate Characterization Abstract Habitats. Unpublished document. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.
Related Concept Name: UNESCO FORMATION CODE: V.B.1c
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization]. 1973. International classification and mapping of vegetation. Series 6, Ecology and Conservation. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Paris. 93 pp.
Related Concept Name: Xeric Limestone Prairie
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Baskin, J. M., C. C. Baskin, and E. W. Chester. 1994. The Big Barrens Region of Kentucky and Tennessee: Further observations and considerations. Castanea 59:226-254.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.024 Southern Ridge and Valley Calcareous Glade and Woodland
CES202.334 Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland
CES202.691 Central Interior Highlands Calcareous Glade and Barrens


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (02Nov1999)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: There are probably over 100 occurrences rangewide. Eighty-three have been documented: 32 in Illinois (S2), 48 in Indiana (S2S3), and 3 in Ohio (S2). Although no other occurrences are documented, the community is also reported in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, and Virginia (all S?). It is found in 15 ecoregional subsections. The present range of this community is probably very close to its presettlement range, but lack of fire permits increased dominance by woody species.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, GA, IL, IN, KY, OH, TN, VA, WVpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This limestone glade or barrens community is found in the central and eastern United States, ranging from southern Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee and Alabama, east to Georgia, western Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Ozark Highlands Section
Section Code: 222A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Shawnee Hills Section
Section Code: 222D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Bluegrass Section
Section Code: 222F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: 231D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Prairie Division
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Temperate) Province
Province Code: 251 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Dissected Till Plains Section
Section Code: 251C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Herbaceous cover is very uneven, ranging from very dense in some areas to absent in others. Some dominant or characteristic grasses include Schizachyrium scoparium, Sorghastrum nutans, Aristida spp., and Sporobolus compositus. In deeper soil areas Andropogon gerardii may be present. At some sites Bouteloua curtipendula is present, but it may be rare or absent at others. Forbs vary in dominance by site and include Asclepias verticillata, Comandra umbellata, Coreopsis tripteris, Croton monanthogynus, Echinacea simulata, Galactia regularis, Hexalectris spicata, Helianthus divaricatus, Helianthus hirsutus, Hypericum dolabriforme, Hypericum sphaerocarpum, Euphorbia corollata, Gaura spp., Lespedeza hirta, Lespedeza virginica, Liatris aspera, Liatris cylindracea, Liatris squarrosa, Leavenworthia exigua var. exigua, Lithospermum canescens, Lobelia spicata var. leptostachys, Manfreda virginica, Matelea obliqua, Ophioglossum engelmannii, Physostegia virginiana, Ratibida pinnata, Rudbeckia hirta, Ruellia humilis, Sabatia angularis, Scutellaria parvula, Silphium trifoliatum, Solidago nemoralis, Verbesina helianthoides, Verbesina virginica, and Zizia aptera. Quercus muehlenbergii and Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana can form a sparse canopy. Quercus stellata may be common in parts of the range. Other scattered trees which may be present include Cercis canadensis, Fraxinus quadrangulata, Quercus velutina, Quercus alba, Quercus marilandica, and Liriodendron tulipifera. The subcanopy is absent or very sparse. Commonly encountered shrubs include Celtis tenuifolia, Cornus florida, Ulmus alata, Rhus aromatica, Rhus copallinum, and Symphoricarpos orbiculatus. This vegetation may exist as more extensive areas, or in some southeastern cases, it may be limited to a more narrow zone between vegetation dominated by woody plants and that dominated by annual grasses (TNC 1995a, D. Minney pers. comm. 2000).

This is an edaphic climax natural community. Physiognomic and floristic variability within and among occurrences of this type are a result of effective soil depth and available water. Drainage related to soil physical properties (stoniness, fragipan) greatly influences the floristic variability of this community. Species diversity is variable and directly proportional to the depth of the soil and water availability.


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus muehlenbergii G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus stellata G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Juniperus virginiana G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Cercis canadensis G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Fraxinus americana G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Juniperus virginiana G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Cotinus obovatus G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Smilax bona-nox G2 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Smilax glauca G2 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Manfreda virginica G2 Succulent shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Astragalus crassicarpus var. trichocalyx G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Astragalus distortus G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Berlandiera betonicifolia G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Dalea gattingeri G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Delphinium alabamicum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Echinacea simulata G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Erysimum capitatum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Galium arkansanum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Helianthus divaricatus G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Hypericum dolabriforme G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Leavenworthia crassa G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Leavenworthia exigua var. exigua G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Leavenworthia uniflora G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Polygala senega G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Silphium pinnatifidum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Zizia aptera G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Andropogon gerardii G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Bouteloua curtipendula G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Schizachyrium scoparium G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Sorghastrum nutans G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Berchemia scandens G2 Liana Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Dalea gattingeri
  (Gattinger's Prairie-clover)
G3G4  
Delphinium alabamicum
  (Alabama Larkspur)
G2  
Leavenworthia crassa
  (Fleshy-fruit Gladecress)
G2 LE: Listed endangered
Leavenworthia exigua var. exigua
  (Tennessee Gladecress)
G4T3  
Peucaea aestivalis
  (Bachman's Sparrow)
G3  
Silphium pinnatifidum
  (Tansy Rosinweed)
G3Q  
Trimerotropis saxatilis
  (Lichen Grasshopper)
G3  
Vegetation Structure Summary: Structural variation within this community is expressed as a mosaic of exposed bedrock, boulders, large/small rocks, gravel, and rarely sand, interspersed and mixed with loess deposits. Soil depth and available water are limiting edaphic factors within this ecosystem. Tall shrub 0.5-5 m and vine/liana 0-2 m tall.

Vegetation Structure
Stratum Growth Form
Height of Stratum (m)
Cover
Class
%
Min
Cover %
Max
Cover %
Tree canopy Other/unknown
10 - 15 m
5-15%
 
 
Shrub/sapling (tall & short) Liana
1 - 2 m
5-15%
 
 
Tall shrub/sapling Shrub
2 - 5 m
15-25%
 
 
Herb (field) Graminoid
<0.5 m
 
25
60
Nonvascular Other/unknown
<0.5 m
 
10
25


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This community occurs on gentle to steep slopes of hills, knobs, ridges, bluffs along streams, and broad terraces. Aspect is variable, but the community is generally best developed on south- and southwest-facing slopes. This aspect causes frequent periods of freeze and thaw resulting in erosion and mass-wasting (TNC 1995a). Aspect also contributes to summer temperatures well in excess of cooler and wetter north- and east-facing slopes. Parent material is limestone, cherty limestone, dolomite, or calcareous shale which is exposed at the surface, resulting in a very shallow, well-drained substrate. Soils are neutral to alkaline, shallow to moderately deep, and contain a homogenous mixture of rock fragments of various sizes. Although predominantly droughty and excessively drained, these sites can be seasonally wet, and water is occasionally ponded in shallow depressions.

Substrate information was collected from cores and pits. County soil maps were also consulted. Soils which support this community are stony, shallow, neutral to alkaline, and primarily composed of weathered mineral matter, loess, and organic debris which collects in cracks and crevices of the bedrock. Organic matter is low, and there is little or no horizon development. These soils are extremely susceptible to erosion and are nutrient-poor. Soil types were gathered from a General Soils Map of Illinois (Fehrenbacher et al. 1982). Soils are neutral to alkaline, shallow to moderately deep, and contain a homogenous mixture of rock fragments of various sizes. Grantsburg-Robbs-Wellston, Hosmer-Stoy-Weir, Stookey-Alford-Muren, Wellston-Berks, Zanesville, Muskingum, Berks, Berks-Wellston, Limestone Rock Land fine-silty (some loamy skeletal), mixed (some montmorillonitic), mesic Typic Hapludalfs, Aquic Hapludalfs, Ultic Hapludalfs, Typic Fragiudalfs, Alfisols, Inceptisols. Parent material is limestone, cherty limestone, dolomite, or calcareous shale which is exposed at the surface, resulting in a very shallow, well-drained substrate. The community primarily occurs on limestone, precipitated by the Genevievian and Chesterian seas during Mississippian Deposition, which is often interbedded in sandstone and shale.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Natural disturbance includes periodic fire, wind, storm, and drought. This community is usually wet in early spring and very dry during summer and fall. Environmental extremes, including rapidly drained, thin, stony soils, summer droughts lasting 3-5 weeks or more, and limited water availability for most of the growing season, favor the establishment of this association. Periodic fire may help to maintain this community, especially after disturbance from logging or grazing. Fire suppression encourages a transition from woodland to forest. Prior to their disappearance, herds of elk, deer, and bison once roamed these hills, and their grazing and browsing provided a primary mechanism for maintaining the "barrens" or glade character (Hall 1970). Fire also periodically swept through these barrens, killing woody vegetation and encouraging herbaceous growth. Drought stress is prevalent, and openings are occasionally enlarged when trees are removed by wind or lightning.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M. Guetersloh
Element Description Edition Date: 16Mar2007
Element Description Author(s): M. Guetersloh
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Nov1999

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Baskin, J. M., C. C. Baskin, and E. W. Chester. 1994. The Big Barrens Region of Kentucky and Tennessee: Further observations and considerations. Castanea 59:226-254.

  • Baskin, J. M., and C. C. Baskin. 1982. Draft of chapter for Kentucky's Natural Heritage Program. University of Kentucky, Lexington.

  • Evans, M. 1991. Kentucky ecological communities. Draft report to the Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission. 19 pp.

  • Evans, M., B. Yahn, and M. Hines. Kentucky ecological communities. 2009. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • Fralish, J. S. 1987. Forest stand basal area and its relationship to individual soil and topographic factors in the Shawnee Hills. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 80(3 and 4):183-194.

  • Heikens, A. L., K. A. West, and P. A. Robertson. 1994. Short-term response of chert and shale barrens vegetation to fire in southwestern Illinois. Castanea 59(3):274-285.

  • Heikens, A. L., and P. A. Robertson. 1994. Barrens of the Midwest: A review of the literature. Castanea 59(3):184-194.

  • Homoya, M. A. 1994. Indiana barrens: Classification and description. Castanea 59(3):204-213.

  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.

  • Hutchison, M. D. 1994. The barrens of the Midwest: An historical perspective. Castanea 59(3):195-203.

  • Hutchison, M. D., S. Olson, and T. Vogt. 1986. A survey of the barrens region in Massac and Pope counties, Illinois. Unpublished survey. 63 pp.

  • Küchler, A. W. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States. American Geographic Society Special Publication 36. New York, NY. 116 pp.

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • Minney, D. Personal communication. The Nature Conservancy, Ohio Chapter, Dublin.

  • Nelson, P. W. 1985. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Jefferson City. 197 pp. Revised edition, 1987.

  • Nordman, C. 2004a. Vascular plant community classification for Stones River National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 64 pp. plus appendices and CD.

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • Pyne, M., E. Lunsford Jones, and R. White. 2010. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Mammoth Cave National Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 334 pp.

  • Quarterman, E., and R. L. Powell. 1978. Potential ecological/geological landmarks of the interior low plateaus. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. 739 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1985. Global Vertebrate Characterization Abstract Habitats. Unpublished document. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1995a. A classification and description of plant communities in southern Illinois. Report by the Southern Illinois Field Office, Ullin, IL, and the Midwest Regional Office, Minneapolis, MN.

  • UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization]. 1973. International classification and mapping of vegetation. Series 6, Ecology and Conservation. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Paris. 93 pp.

  • Voigt, J. W., and R. H. Mohlenbrock. 1964. Plant communities of southern Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale. 202 pp.

  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date (b). Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.

  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.


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