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Pinus (pungens, rigida) - Quercus prinus / (Quercus ilicifolia) / Gaylussacia baccata Woodland
Translated Name: (Table Mountain Pine, Pitch Pine) - Chestnut Oak / (Bear Oak) / Black Huckleberry Woodland
Common Name: Central Appalachian Pine - Oak / Heath Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL004996
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association represents mixed woodlands occupying xeric, convex, often rocky south- and west-facing slopes, ridge spurs, crests, and clifftops in the Central Appalachians and peripherally in the Piedmont and Southern Blue Ridge. Stands occur at elevations from 275 to 1200 m (900-4000 feet) on various substrates but most commonly on acidic, sedimentary and metasedimentary substrates (e.g., quartzites, sandstones, and shales). Soils are very infertile, shallow, and droughty. A thick, poorly decomposed duff layer, along with dead wood and highly volatile ericaceous shrubs, create a strongly fire-prone habitat. Pinus pungens and Pinus rigida, individually or together, codominate the canopy with Quercus prinus. The physiognomy of this community can approach that of a closed-canopy forest in some situations as a result of fire exclusion. Scattered canopy and subcanopy associates may include Quercus coccinea, Quercus rubra, Quercus marilandica, Pinus virginiana, Castanea dentata, Acer rubrum, Sassafras albidum, Nyssa sylvatica, and Amelanchier arborea. Quercus ilicifolia often dominates a moderately open to very dense tall-shrub layer, while variable combinations of Kalmia latifolia, Gaylussacia baccata, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium stamineum, Pieris floribunda, Rhododendron catawbiense, and other ericads form a generally dense low-shrub layer. Smilax rotundifolia and Smilax glauca may be prominent climbers among the shrubs. Herbaceous species, often very sparse, are rooted in small openings among the shrubs, on rocks, and in disturbed areas where mineral soil is exposed. Typical herbs and subshrubs include Epigaea repens, Gaultheria procumbens, Xerophyllum asphodeloides, Iris verna, Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, Melampyrum lineare var. latifolium, Stenanthium gramineum var. micranthum, Uvularia puberula, Lycopodium tristachyum, Aralia hispida (usually on outcrops), and Carex tonsa. Periodic fire is an important ecological process that provides opportunities for the regeneration of both canopy pines and less competitive herbaceous species, while setting back successional encroachment of xeric oaks. On many sites (e.g., clifftops, quartzite ledges), the vegetation is self-perpetuating due to extreme edaphic conditions.



Classification

Classification Confidence: High
Classification Comments: This community type is closely related to other xeric pine and pine-oak associations. It is thought to differ in the frequent shrub layer dominance of Quercus ilicifolia, a northern species which is absent in similar communities south of Virginia, as well as the absence of a number of uncommon but characteristic southern species such as Gaylussacia ursina, Rhododendron carolinianum, Rhododendron minus, Leiophyllum buxifolium, and Fothergilla major. In 68 plots from Virginia, the most constant (>62%) species, in order of descending constancy, are Kalmia latifolia, Vaccinium pallidum, Quercus prinus (= Quercus montana), Gaylussacia baccata, Quercus ilicifolia, Sassafras albidum, Nyssa sylvatica, Pinus rigida, Acer rubrum, and Amelanchier arborea. Other less constant species from this community with more northern affinities, which are absent or infrequent south of Virginia, are Pieris floribunda and Vaccinium angustifolium. Long-term, widespread fire exclusion is an ongoing problem which may be causing some stands to succeed to closed, mixed oak-pine forest. However, on many sites occupied by this community, edaphic conditions are so stressful that tree oaks are marginally competitive, and even long fire-return intervals (e.g., >25 years) are sufficient to maintain pine codominance. Within the past ten years, much of this vegetation in Virginia has been devastated by infestations of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis). These outbreaks have resulted in extensive mortality of the dominant pines and changed physiognomies, at least temporarily, to a shrubland condition. Two subtypes formerly recognized in Virginia have proven problematic in recent analyses and are better regarded as intergrading variants.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Virginia Pine - Table Mountain Pine Woodland & Barrens
Alliance Appalachian Table Mountain Pine - Pitch Pine - Chestnut Oak Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004821 Pinus rigida - Quercus prinus / Gaylussacia baccata / Carex pensylvanica Woodland
CEGL004985 Pinus rigida - (Pinus pungens) / Rhododendron catawbiense - Kalmia latifolia / Galax urceolata Woodland
CEGL006116 Pinus rigida / (Quercus ilicifolia) / Photinia melanocarpa / Deschampsia flexuosa Woodland
CEGL007097 Pinus pungens - Pinus rigida - (Quercus prinus) / Kalmia latifolia - Vaccinium pallidum Woodland
CEGL007119 Pinus virginiana - Pinus (rigida, echinata) - (Quercus prinus) / Vaccinium pallidum Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Pennsylvania Pitch Pine - Heath Woodland Broader   Fike 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Pinus (pungens, rigida) - Quercus montana / (Quercus ilicifolia) / Gaylussacia baccata Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Pinus (pungens, rigida) - Quercus prinus / (Quercus ilicifolia) / Gaylussacia baccata Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Pinus (pungens, rigida) / Quercus ilicifolia / Gaylussacia baccata Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus pungens - Pinus rigida / Quercus ilicifolia / Gaylussacia baccata Association
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Pinus pungens - Quercus montana / Kalmia latifolia / Gaylussacia baccata Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus pungens - Quercus prinus - (Quercus coccinea) / Kalmia latifolia - Gaylussacia baccata Woodland
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus pungens - Quercus prinus / Kalmia latifolia / Gaylussacia baccata Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Pinus pungens / Quercus ilicifolia / Gaylussacia baccata - Pteridium aquilinum Woodland
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Pinus rigida - Quercus montana - (Pinus virginiana) / (Quercus marilandica) / Kalmia latifolia Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus rigida - Quercus prinus - (Pinus virginiana) / (Quercus marilandica) / Kalmia latifolia Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Pinus rigida / Quercus ilicifolia / Gaylussacia baccata Association
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., G. P. Fleming, and F. V. Judge. 1994. Forest vegetation of the Ramsey's Draft and Little Laurel Run Research Natural Areas, Virginia: Baseline ecological monitoring and classification. Natural Heritage Technical Report 94-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 45 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana - Pinus rigida / Quercus ilicifolia / Gaylussacia baccata Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Young, J., G. Fleming, P. Townsend, and J. Foster. 2007a. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients. Final Report, volume 1.1. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 103 pp. plus appendices and GIS products.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - Pinus rigida / Quercus ilicifolia - Kalmia latifolia - Gaylussacia baccata / Gaultheria procumbens Woodland
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut Oak: 44
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Montane Pine - Oak Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pine - Oak / Heath Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pitch Pine: 45
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.591 Central Appalachian Dry Oak-Pine Forest
CES202.600 Central Appalachian Pine-Oak Rocky Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (01Oct2001)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This community is widely but locally distributed in the Central Appalachians, forming large patches at some sites. It is apparently secure, although fire suppression and insect pathogens represent ongoing stand-altering disturbances.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: MD, PA, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs in the Central Appalachian region of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, with very local outliers in the western Piedmont of Virginia and Maryland (e.g., Sugarloaf Mountain). In Virginia, the type as a whole ranges through the Blue Ridge and Ridge and Valley provinces north of the New River. Outliers occur on Bull Run Mountain (Fauquier County), Willis Mountain (Buckingham County), and other Virginia Piedmont foothills.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopies of stands of this type are codominated by Pinus pungens and Pinus rigida, either individually or together, with Quercus prinus. Scattered canopy and subcanopy associates may include Quercus coccinea, Quercus rubra, Quercus marilandica, Pinus virginiana, Castanea dentata, Acer rubrum, Sassafras albidum, Nyssa sylvatica, and Amelanchier arborea. Quercus ilicifolia often dominates a moderately open to very dense tall-shrub layer, while variable combinations of Kalmia latifolia, Gaylussacia baccata, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium stamineum, Pieris floribunda, Rhododendron catawbiense, and other ericads form a generally dense low-shrub layer. Smilax rotundifolia and Smilax glauca may be prominent climbers among the shrubs. Herbaceous species, often very sparse, are rooted in small openings among the shrubs, on rocks, and in disturbed areas where mineral soil is exposed. Typical herbs and subshrubs include Epigaea repens, Gaultheria procumbens, Xerophyllum asphodeloides, Iris verna, Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, Melampyrum lineare var. latifolium, Stenanthium gramineum var. micranthum, Uvularia puberula, Lycopodium tristachyum, Aralia hispida (usually on outcrops), and Carex tonsa. Although fully intergradational, two variants recognized in Virginia are very distinct in their typical expressions. Both share Quercus prinus as a codominant canopy tree and have a similar ericaceous shrub layer composed largely of Kalmia latifolia, Gaylussacia baccata, and Vaccinium pallidum. However, in the first variant, which is usually associated with cliffs and rocky slopes, Pinus pungens is the most constant and abundant pine. In the second variant, most often associated with xeric upper slopes and crests, Pinus rigida is the most constant and abundant pine. Recognition of these variants as formal types or subtypes has proven problematic due to intergradation of both habitats and floristic composition. Piedmont stands of this community (e.g., on Bull Run Mountain, Virginia, and Sugarloaf Mountain, Maryland) are similar to montane stands but lack Quercus ilicifolia and other species characteristic of higher elevations. In 57 plot samples classified as this association from Virginia, mean species richness was 19 species per 400 m2, ranging from 9-27 species per 400 m2.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus prinus G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus pungens G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus rigida G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Tsuga caroliniana G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Nyssa sylvatica G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Quercus coccinea G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Quercus ilicifolia G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Sassafras albidum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Buckleya distichophylla G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Gaylussacia baccata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Vaccinium pallidum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Kalmia latifolia G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Gaultheria procumbens G4 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Vaccinium myrtilloides G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Galax urceolata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Iris verna G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Melampyrum lineare var. latifolium G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Xerophyllum asphodeloides G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Diphasiastrum tristachyum G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex polymorpha G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Buckleya distichophylla
  (Piratebush)
G3  
Carex polymorpha
  (Variable Sedge)
G3  
Catocala herodias gerhardi
  (Herodias or Pine Barrens Underwing)
G3T3  
Tsuga caroliniana
  (Carolina Hemlock)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: These mixed woodlands occupy xeric, convex, often rocky south- and west-facing slopes, ridge spurs, crests, and clifftops in the Central Appalachians and peripherally in the Piedmont and Southern Blue Ridge. Stands occur at elevations from 275 to 1200 m (900-4000 feet) on various substrates but most commonly on acidic, sedimentary and metasedimentary substrates (e.g., quartzites, sandstones, and shales). Soils are very infertile, shallow, and droughty. A thick, poorly decomposed duff layer, along with dead wood and highly volatile ericaceous shrubs, create a strongly fire-prone habitat. On many sites (e.g., clifftops, quartzite ledges), the vegetation is self-perpetuating due to extreme edaphic conditions. There are significant differences in site conditions associated with variations in this community type. One major variant, often associated with Pinus pungens abundance, occurs at low to middle elevations and tends to occupy cliffs and steep sideslopes with significant rock cover. Another variant, often associated with high Pinus rigida cover, occurs at middle to high elevations and tends to occupy moderately steep to sublevel upper slopes and crests with little rock cover and very dense duff. Although strongly fire-prone habitats influence vegetation structure and composition of both subtypes, the rock outcrop variant tends to be more influenced by edaphic stresses because of its frequent association with cliffs and outcrop areas.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: The canopy closure can approach forest physiognomy in some situations as a result of fire exclusion. Periodic fire is an important ecological process which provides opportunities for the regeneration of both canopy pines and less competitive herbaceous species, while setting back successional encroachment of xeric oaks. On many sites (e.g., clifftops, quartzite ledges), the vegetation is self-perpetuating due to extreme edaphic conditions. Much of this vegetation in Virginia has been devastated in the 1990s by infestations of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis). These outbreaks have resulted in extensive mortality of the dominant pines and changed physiognomies, at least temporarily, to a shrubland condition.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G. Fleming and P. Coulling, mod. G. Fleming
Element Description Edition Date: 24Feb2010
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Fleming and P.P. Coulling
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Oct2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 1985. A study of the dwarf pine forest and Carex polymorpha Muhl. on Panther Knob, West Virginia. Final report prepared for The Nature Conservancy, West Virginia Field Office. 149 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Rawinski, T. J., G. P. Fleming, and F. V. Judge. 1994. Forest vegetation of the Ramsey's Draft and Little Laurel Run Research Natural Areas, Virginia: Baseline ecological monitoring and classification. Natural Heritage Technical Report 94-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 45 pp. plus appendices.

  • Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date (b). Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, P. Townsend, and J. Foster. 2006. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients. Final Report (v.1.1). Research technical report prepared for USDI, National Park Service. USGS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. 92 pp. plus appendices.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, P. Townsend, and J. Foster. 2007a. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients. Final Report, volume 1.1. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 103 pp. plus appendices and GIS products.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, W. Cass, and C. Lea. 2009. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients, Version 2.0. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2009/142. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 389 pp.


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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016