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Ceratophyllum demersum - Vallisneria americana - Najas spp. Tidal Marsh
Translated Name: Coon's-tail - American Eel-grass - Waternymph species Tidal Marsh
Common Name: Mixed Freshwater Subtidal Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL006048
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association comprises mixed freshwater subtidal aquatic beds of the mid-Atlantic Coast. It occurs in fresh reaches of upper bays and tributaries within estuarine systems. Species composition is variable and includes Vallisneria americana, Ceratophyllum demersum, Heteranthera dubia, Elodea canadensis, Najas guadalupensis, Najas gracillima, Najas minor, Potamogeton pusillus, Stuckenia pectinata (= Potamogeton pectinatus), and others. There is often a strong component of exotic species that can be locally or extensively dominant, including Myriophyllum spicatum, Hydrilla verticillata, and Potamogeton crispus. This association can have dramatic seasonal fluctuations in species composition and biomass.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: This association is similar to Stuckenia pectinata - Potamogeton perfoliatus - (Zannichellia palustris) Tidal Marsh (CEGL006027) in environment and has some overlap in species composition. It is distinguished by its higher species diversity (including the presence of several exotics) and the lack of dominance by Potamogeton species.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Ne - Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Fresh-Oligohaline Tidal Marsh
Group Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Fresh-Oligohaline Tidal Marsh
Alliance Mixed Freshwater Subtidal Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006027 Stuckenia pectinata - Potamogeton perfoliatus - (Zannichellia palustris) Tidal Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Maryland Ceratophyllum demersum - Vallisneria americana - Najas spp. Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Ceratophyllum demersum - Vallisneria americana - Najas spp. Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Myriophyllum spicatum - Vallisneria americana - Stuckenia pectinata Permanently Flooded - Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.
Related Concept Name: Freshwater Mixed Community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Moore, K. A., D. J. Wilcox, and R. J. Orth. 2000. Analysis of the abundance of submersed aquatic vegetation communities in the Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 23:115-127.
Related Concept Name: Tidal Freshwater and Oligohaline Aquatic Bed
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.521 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Subtidal Aquatic Bed


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (13May2002)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DC, MD, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: The geographic range of this type is centered in the Chesapeake Bay estuary, it but likely occurs in other locations.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Species composition is variable and includes Vallisneria americana, Ceratophyllum demersum, Heteranthera dubia, Elodea canadensis, Najas guadalupensis, Najas gracillima, Najas minor, Potamogeton pusillus, Stuckenia pectinata (= Potamogeton pectinatus), and others. There is often a strong component of exotic species that can be locally or extensively dominant, including Myriophyllum spicatum, Hydrilla verticillata, and Potamogeton crispus. This association can have dramatic seasonal fluctuations in species composition and biomass.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Ceratophyllum demersum GNR Aquatic herb Submerged aquatic  
 
 
Hydrilla verticillata GNR Aquatic herb Submerged aquatic    
 
 
Myriophyllum spicatum GNR Aquatic herb Submerged aquatic    
 
 
Najas gracillima GNR Aquatic herb Submerged aquatic  
 
 
Najas minor GNR Aquatic herb Submerged aquatic  
 
 
Potamogeton crispus GNR Aquatic herb Submerged aquatic    
 
 
Vallisneria americana GNR Aquatic herb Submerged aquatic  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This type occurs in fresh reaches of upper bays and tributaries within estuarine systems.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This association occurs upstream from, but also intergrades with, fresh/brackish associations.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): S.L. Neid
Element Description Edition Date: 24May2007
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2001a. Community types of Coastal Plain calcareous ravines in Virginia. Preliminary analysis and classification. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 4 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Moore, K. A., D. J. Wilcox, and R. J. Orth. 2000. Analysis of the abundance of submersed aquatic vegetation communities in the Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 23:115-127.

  • Orth, R. J., and K. A. Moore. 1988. Distribution of Zostera marina L. and Ruppia maritima L. sensu lato along depth gradients in the lower Chesapeake Bay, USA. Aquatic Botany 32:291-305.


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