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Salix geyeriana - Salix lemmonii / Carex aquatilis var. dives Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Geyer's Willow - Lemmon's Willow / Sitka Sedge Wet Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL001212
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This riparian shrubland association is locally abundant in the eastern central Cascades and rare in the southern portion of the eastern Cascades. Elevations are low to moderately high, ranging from 945 to 1585 m (3100-5200 feet). Most occurrences are on low-gradient floodplains along streams, although a few large occurrences are found on the headwaters and tributary drainages in wet, poorly drained marshes and swamps. Floodplain soils are very deep alluviums that usually have significant amounts of sedge peat. The vegetation is dominated by tall willows (Salix geyeriana and/or Salix lemmonii) with a sward of Carex aquatilis var. dives. In the higher elevation headwaters, Salix eastwoodiae (sometimes with Salix sitchensis) may be codominant with Salix geyeriana or Salix lemmonii. Salix eastwoodiae or Betula glandulosa can be dominant where beaver have reduced the cover of the more palatable Salix geyeriana, Salix lemmonii, and Salix sitchensis. Spiraea douglasii and Vaccinium uliginosum are often common under the tall shrubs. Aside from the very dominant Carex aquatilis var. dives, Carex utriculata is common on wetter sites, but other graminoids and forbs are inconspicuous. Typical forbs include Pyrola asarifolia, Epilobium ciliatum, Galium triflorum, Cicuta douglasii, Platanthera dilatata, and Equisetum arvense.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This appears to be a very distinctive, local plant association, which actually has two fairly distinct phases. It is possible that with additional data from northwestern California, the higher elevation types with Salix eastwoodiae could be separated into a new association.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Western North American Montane Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Western Montane-Subalpine Riparian & Seep Shrubland
Alliance Western Montane Tall Willow Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Salix geyeriana - Salix lemmonii / Carex aquatilis Equivalent Certain IDCDC unpubl. data
Oregon Salix geyeriana - Salix lemmonii Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Salix / Carex sitchensis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 1987. Riparian zone associations - Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema national forests. Technical Paper 279-87. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 171 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix geyeriana - Salix lemmonii / Carex aquatilis var. dives Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES204.869 North Pacific Lowland Riparian Forest and Shrubland
CES306.832 Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Riparian Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (21Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This is a restricted riparian association which is fairly abundant along the southern portions of the eastern Cascades in Oregon. Only 11 plots were sampled in good condition, and many of the known sites have been degraded by water diversions and livestock use, particularly those found at lower elevations. The type mostly occurs on deep alluvial loams and has well-developed sedge peat. Only a few sites are known from established wilderness. If this type is found to occur in California, or if a number of occurrences are protected, the rank could become a G4. Conversely, if stands of this type, especially at the lower elevations, continue to decline, it could become a G3.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CApotentially occurs, IDpotentially occurs, NVpotentially occurs, OR
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: Currently, this is very locally distributed in the eastern Cascades of central and southern Oregon.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Basin and Range Section
Section Code: 342B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Regime Mountains
Province Name: Cascade Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Oregon and Washington Coast Ranges Section
Section Code: M242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Eastern Cascades Section
Section Code: M242C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Mountains Section
Section Code: M332G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation is dominated by tall willows (Salix geyeriana and/or Salix lemmonii) with a sward of Carex aquatilis var. dives. In the higher elevation headwaters, Salix eastwoodiae (sometimes with Salix sitchensis) may be codominant with Salix geyeriana or Salix lemmonii. Salix eastwoodiae or Betula glandulosa can be dominant where beaver have reduced the cover of the more palatable Salix geyeriana, Salix lemmonii, and Salix sitchensis. Spiraea douglasii and Vaccinium uliginosum are often common under the tall shrubs. Aside from the very dominant Carex aquatilis var. dives, Carex utriculata is common on wetter sites, but other graminoids and forbs are inconspicuous. Typical forbs include Pyrola asarifolia, Epilobium ciliatum, Galium triflorum, Cicuta douglasii, Platanthera dilatata (= Habenaria dilatata), and Equisetum arvense.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Salix geyeriana G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Salix lemmonii G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Carex aquatilis var. dives G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Elevations are low to moderately high, ranging from 945 to 1585 m (3100-5200 feet). Most occurrences are on low-gradient floodplains along streams, although a few large occurrences are found on the headwaters and tributary drainages in wet, poorly drained marshes and swamps. Floodplain soils are very deep alluviums that usually have significant amounts of sedge peat.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): J. Kagan
Element Description Edition Date: 26Nov1997
Element Description Author(s): J. Kagan
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J. Kagan

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Crowe, E., B. Kovalchik, M. J. Kerr, J. Titus, and J. S. Kagan. 2002. Riparian and wetland plant communities of eastern Oregon. Draft report. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland, OR.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 1987. Riparian zone associations - Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema national forests. Technical Paper 279-87. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 171 pp.

  • Peterson, E. B. 2008. International Vegetation Classification alliances and associations occurring in Nevada with proposed additions. Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Carson City, NV. 348 pp.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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Data last updated: March 2019