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Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium (angustifolium, pallidum) Forest
Translated Name: Chestnut Oak - (Northern Red Oak, Black Oak) / (Lowbush Blueberry, Blue Ridge Blueberry) Forest
Common Name: Lower New England High Slope Chestnut Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006282
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This dry to xeric oak-heath forest of central and southern New England ranges south to the northern Piedmont and central Appalachian Mountains. It occurs on upper slopes and ridgetops with thin, nutrient-poor, acidic soils. Windthrow, fire and ice damage are common natural disturbances. The canopy is closed to partially open and is dominated by Quercus prinus, which can be codominant with Quercus rubra. Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, and Acer rubrum are common associates, with other less frequent trees including Betula lenta, Quercus coccinea, Amelanchier arborea, Pinus rigida, and Pinus strobus. Sassafras albidum, Cornus florida, and Nyssa sylvatica can be minor associates at the southern and western portions of the range. The low-shrub layer is well-developed and comprised chiefly of ericaceous species, including Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, Gaylussacia baccata, or Kalmia angustifolia. A tall-shrub layer is often lacking but when present may include Castanea dentata, Kalmia latifolia, Viburnum acerifolium, Hamamelis virginiana, Quercus ilicifolia, and Viburnum prunifolium. Ilex montana, Rhododendron prinophyllum, and Menziesia pilosa are minor shrub associates at the southern end of the range. The herbaceous layer is of sparse to moderate cover, depending on shrub cover, and may include Carex pensylvanica, Deschampsia flexuosa, Danthonia spicata, Ageratina altissima var. altissima, Antennaria plantaginifolia, Aralia nudicaulis, Aureolaria laevigata, Gaultheria procumbens, Chimaphila maculata, Carex rosea, Carex swanii, Carex pensylvanica, Corydalis sempervirens, Comandra umbellata, Cypripedium acaule, Dryopteris marginalis, Epigaea repens, Goodyera pubescens, Hieracium venosum, Lycopodium clavatum, Medeola virginiana, Melampyrum lineare, Monotropa uniflora, Potentilla canadensis, Pteridium aquilinum, and Uvularia sessilifolia.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This community type is closely related to other oak / heath. It is distinguished by the presence of northern species, such as Pinus strobus and Vaccinium angustifolium, and its general lack of southern Appalachian species, such as Gaylussacia ursina, Leucothoe recurva, and Galax urceolata. In comparison to Quercus prinus - Quercus (alba, coccinea) / Viburnum acerifolium - (Kalmia latifolia) Forest (CEGL005023), it lacks Oxydendrum arboreum, Pinus echinata, and Pinus virginiana. It occupies poorer sites and has a more abundant ericaceous shrub component than Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Hamamelis virginiana Forest (CEGL006057). The Chestnut Oak / Low-Elevation Subtype of Virginia intergrades with the more southern Quercus (prinus, coccinea) / Kalmia latifolia / (Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens) Forest (CEGL006271) throughout west-central Virginia. A well-developed Piedmont example of the Chestnut Oak / Low-Elevation Subtype is described by Allard and Leonard (1943). The Chestnut Oak - Northern Red Oak / High-Elevation Subtype of Virginia is similar to Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Vaccinium pallidum - (Rhododendron periclymenoides) Forest (CEGL008523) of high-elevation granitic terrain on the northern Blue Ridge, but lacks Quercus velutina, Rhododendron periclymenoides, and the suite of low-cover herbaceous species characteristic of mineral soil microhabitats in that unit. The recognition of global subtypes equivalent to two distinct state community types is well supported by quantitative analysis of compositional and environmental data. Further study may support the elevation of these subtypes to full association-level status in the USNVC.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Appalachian Oak / Chestnut Forest
Alliance Chestnut Oak - Scarlet Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL005023 Quercus prinus - Quercus (alba, coccinea) / Viburnum acerifolium - (Kalmia latifolia) Forest
CEGL006057 Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Hamamelis virginiana Forest
CEGL006271 Quercus (prinus, coccinea) / Kalmia latifolia / (Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens) Forest
CEGL006299 Quercus prinus - (Quercus coccinea, Quercus rubra) / Kalmia latifolia / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
CEGL006336 Quercus (alba, rubra, velutina) - Carya spp. / Viburnum acerifolium Forest
CEGL007700 Quercus prinus - Quercus spp. / Vaccinium arboreum - (Kalmia latifolia, Styrax grandifolius) Forest
CEGL008523 Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Vaccinium pallidum - (Rhododendron periclymenoides) Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Black oak - Chestnut oak / Black huckleberry (Quercus velutina - Quercus prinus / Gaylussacia baccata) community Broader   Metzler and Barrett 2001
Delaware Lower New England Slope Chestnut Oak Forest Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maine Chestnut Oak Woodland Equivalent   Gawler 2002
Maryland Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Gaylussacia baccata Forest Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
Massachusetts Chestnut Oak Forest/Woodland Equivalent   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Chestnut Oak Forest/Woodland Equivalent   Sperduto and Nichols 2004
New Jersey Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Gaylussacia baccata Forest Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
New York Chestnut oak forest Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Dry Oak - Heath Forest Broader Certain Fike 1999
Rhode Island Chestnut Oak Forest Equivalent   Enser 1999
Vermont Dry Oak Forest Equivalent   Thompson and Sorenson 2000


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Quercus (prinus, rubra) / Calamagrostis porteri Ridgetop Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Walton, D., N. Putnam, and P. Trianosky. 1997. A classification of the terrestrial plant communities of West Virginia. Second draft. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins, WV.
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana - Quercus rubra / Kalmia latifolia / Vaccinium angustifolium - Gaultheria procumbens Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana / Kalmia latifolia / Gaultheria procumbens Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., G. P. Fleming, and F. V. Judge. 1994. Forest vegetation of the Ramsey's Draft and Little Laurel Run Research Natural Areas, Virginia: Baseline ecological monitoring and classification. Natural Heritage Technical Report 94-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 45 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Gaylussacia baccata Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium angustifolium Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Acer pensylvanicum Association: Betula lenta / Ilex montana Subassociation
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1996. Ecological land units of the Laurel Fork Area, Highland County, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 114 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Kalmia latifolia / Vaccinium angustifolium - Gaultheria procumbens Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus / Deschampsia flexuosa Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus velutina - (Quercus prinus) Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 1996. Vegetation classification for Connecticut organized into the modified UNESCO hierarchy. Unpublished review draft. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database. Hartford, CT. 48 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus velutina - Q. prinus / Gaylussacia baccata community
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
Related Concept Name: CNE dry hardwood forest on acidic bedrock or till
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut Oak Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut Oak Woodland
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut Oak: 44
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Dry Oak Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Thompson, E. 1996. Natural communities of Vermont uplands and wetland. Nongame and Natural Heritage Program, Department of Fish and Wildlife in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, Vermont chapter. 34 pp.
Related Concept Name: Oak - Chestnut
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Keever, C. 1973. Distribution of major forest species in southeastern Pennsylvania. Ecological Monographs 43:303-327.
Related Concept Name: Oak / Heath Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: SNE dry oak/pine forests on acidic bedrock or till
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: SNE mesic oak/pine forest on acidic bedrock or till
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.591 Central Appalachian Dry Oak-Pine Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (31Jan2007)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This is a very widely distributed oak / ericad forest that covers large areas.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, WVpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community ranges from southern Maine through the Central Appalachians to higher elevations in Virginia and West Virginia, and north more locally in the Piedmont (an estimated 215,000 square km based on approximate acreage of subsections of occurrence).

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: St. Lawrence and Champlain Valley Section
Section Code: 212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Adirondack Mountain Section
Section Code: M212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Catskill Mountain Section
Section Code: M212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy is closed to partially open and dominated by Quercus prinus, which can be codominant with Quercus rubra. Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, and Acer rubrum are common associates, with other less frequent trees including Betula lenta, Quercus coccinea, Amelanchier arborea, Pinus rigida, and Pinus strobus. Sassafras albidum, Cornus florida, and Nyssa sylvatica can be minor associates at the southern and western portions of the range. The low-shrub layer is well-developed and comprised chiefly of ericaceous species, including Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, Gaylussacia baccata, or Kalmia angustifolia. A tall-shrub layer is often lacking but when present may include Castanea dentata, Kalmia latifolia, Viburnum acerifolium, Hamamelis virginiana, Quercus ilicifolia, and Viburnum prunifolium. Ilex montana, Rhododendron prinophyllum, and Menziesia pilosa are minor shrub associates at the southern end of the range. The herbaceous layer is of sparse to moderate cover, depending on shrub cover, and may include Carex pensylvanica, Deschampsia flexuosa, Danthonia spicata, Ageratina altissima var. altissima, Antennaria plantaginifolia, Aralia nudicaulis, Aureolaria laevigata, Gaultheria procumbens, Chimaphila maculata, Carex rosea, Carex swanii, Carex pensylvanica, Corydalis sempervirens, Comandra umbellata, Cypripedium acaule, Dryopteris marginalis, Epigaea repens, Goodyera pubescens, Hieracium venosum, Lycopodium clavatum, Medeola virginiana, Melampyrum lineare, Monotropa uniflora, Potentilla canadensis, Pteridium aquilinum, and Uvularia sessilifolia.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus coccinea G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus prinus G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus rubra G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus velutina G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Acer rubrum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Nyssa sylvatica G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Sassafras albidum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Amelanchier arborea G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Castanea dentata G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Vaccinium angustifolium G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Vaccinium pallidum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Kalmia latifolia G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Gaultheria procumbens G5 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Gaylussacia baccata G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Vaccinium stamineum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Aralia nudicaulis G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Pteridium aquilinum G5 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 
Carex pensylvanica G5 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Danthonia spicata G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Deschampsia flexuosa G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This forest generally occurs on xeric upper slopes and ridgetops and steep sideslopes with shallow, acidic, rocky, infertile soils. Windthrow, fire, and ice storms are common natural disturbances in these habitats.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Periodic fire is likely an important ecological factor in oak regeneration.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 19Jun2006
Element Description Author(s): G. Fleming, P. Coulling, S.L. Neid, L.A. Sneddon and S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Jan2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G. Fleming, mod. S.L. Neid

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, H. A., and E. C. Leonard. 1943. The vegetation and floristics of Bull Run Mountain, Virginia. Castanea 8:1-64.

  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.

  • Collins, B. R., and K. H. Anderson. 1994. Plant communities of New Jersey. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ. 287 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Enser, R. 1999. Natural communities of Rhode Island. Unpublished draft, December 1999. 22 pp.

  • Enser, R. W., and J. A. Lundgren. 2006. Natural communities of Rhode Island. A joint project of the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston. 40 pp. [www.rinhs.org]

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1996. Ecological land units of the Laurel Fork Area, Highland County, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 114 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

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  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

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  • Keever, C. 1973. Distribution of major forest species in southeastern Pennsylvania. Ecological Monographs 43:303-327.

  • Metzler, K. J., J. P. Barrett, T. E. Nosal, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2009. Vegetation classification and mapping at Weir Farm National Historic Site, Connecticut. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/130. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 128 pp.

  • Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 1996. Vegetation classification for Connecticut organized into the modified UNESCO hierarchy. Unpublished review draft. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database. Hartford, CT. 48 pp.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Nerurkar, J. D. 1974. Plant communities on a quartzite ridge in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 48:101-106.

  • Overlease, W. R. 1978. A study of forest communities in southern Chester County, Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 52:37-44.

  • Overlease, W. R. 1987. 150 years of vegetation change in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Bartonia 53:1-12.

  • Pearson, P. R., Jr. 1979. Vegetation reconnaissance of three woodland stands on Buckingham Mountain, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Bartonia 46:71-80.

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