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Pinus palustris - Pinus taeda / Quercus laevis / Gaylussacia frondosa - Gaylussacia baccata Woodland
Translated Name: Longleaf Pine - Loblolly Pine / Turkey Oak / Blue Huckleberry - Black Huckleberry Woodland
Common Name: Longleaf Pine / Scrub Oak Sandhill (Northern Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL003592
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association is a longleaf pine / scrub oak sandhill community that occurs in the northern portion of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain and hence differs substantially in floristic composition from more southern types. Pinus palustris and Pinus taeda dominate the canopy with a variety of scrub oaks in the subcanopy layer. The shrub layer is often dense and diverse, dominated by Gaylussacia spp. and Vaccinium tenellum, in contrast to the herbaceous layer, which is often sparse and relatively species-poor.



Classification

Classification Confidence: High
Classification Comments: Description has been changed based on 3 plots from the Carolina Vegetation Survey (http://vegbank.org\cite\VB.ds.199640.CEGL003592) and 7 plots from the Virginia Natural Heritage Database. The concept of this type remains the same, but the description has been refined based on existing plot data. The name has been changed to exclude Quercus incana and Gaylussacia dumosa and include Pinus taeda.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.1 - Warm Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.1.Na - Southeastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Longleaf Pine Woodland
Group Xeric Longleaf Pine Woodland
Alliance Longleaf Pine / Turkey Oak / Pineland Three-awn Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003591 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis - Quercus incana / Gaylussacia dumosa / Aristida stricta Woodland
CEGL003647 Pinus palustris - (Pinus serotina) / Ilex glabra - Gaylussacia frondosa - (Kalmia carolina) Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (Northern Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Pinus palustris - (Pinus serotina) / Quercus laevis / Gaylussacia frondosa - Kalmia angustifolia - Vaccinium tenellum Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis - Quercus incana / Gaylussacia dumosa - Gaylussacia (baccata, frondosa) Woodland
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Peet, R. K. 2006. Ecological classification of longleaf pine woodlands. Pages 51-93 in: S. Jose, E. J. Jokela, and D. L. Miller, editors. The Longleaf Pine Ecosystem: Ecology, Silviculture, and Restoration. Springer Science Business Media, LLC, New York.
Related Concept Name: Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (Northern Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill, Northern Variant
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. P. 1994. Inventory of longleaf pine natural communities. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 230 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.281 Atlantic Coastal Plain Upland Longleaf Pine Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (19Jan1999)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This woodland community is restricted to the northern range of the Longleaf Pine Ecosystem. It is only found in North Carolina and adjacent southeastern Virginia. Very few examples remain, and none of them are in very good condition. This obscures the pre-settlement nature of these communities. It is part of the endangered Longleaf Pine Ecosystem, which once dominated the Coastal Plain landscape of the southeastern United States, and depends on frequent, low-intensity, growing-season fires to control understory vegetation and for the reproduction of Pinus palustris. Pinus palustris-dominated woodlands are susceptible to the effects of fire suppression, overgrazing, or conversion to commercial forest plantations or agriculture. Remaining examples are highly threatened by development, conversion, and alteration of fire regimes. Most of those occurrences which have not been destroyed are severely degraded.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This woodland community is only found in North Carolina and adjacent southeastern Virginia. Examples are known from the Blackwater Ecological Preserve (Isle of Wight County, Virginia), Wyanoke Sandhills (Gates County, North Carolina), and Cool Springs Landing (Craven County, North Carolina).

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Possible


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This northern longleaf pine sandhill community differs substantially in floristic composition from other, more southern types. In part, this is a matter of many species occurring to the south being absent, but other, more northern species atypical of longleaf sandhills are also present. The overstory canopy is composed of equal parts Pinus palustris and Pinus taeda and the subcanopy layer is composed primarily of scrub oaks, including Quercus laevis, Quercus nigra, and Quercus falcata. Other common trees in this type include Pinus serotina, Diospyros virginiana, Sassafras albidum, and Castanea pumila. The shrub layer is dominated by Gaylussacia frondosa, Gaylussacia dumosa, and Vaccinium tenellum. Other common shrubs include Gaylussacia baccata, Gaultheria procumbens, Morella cerifera, Vaccinium pallidum, and Vaccinium stamineum. The herbaceous layer is relatively sparse and species-poor. Aristida stricta is lacking in this type. Other characteristic understory species include Euphorbia ipecacuanhae, Smilax glauca, Schizachyrium scoparium, Carphephorus bellidifolius, and Pteridium aquilinum. In Virginia, where longleaf pine vegetation is very limited and remaining sites are intensely managed with prescription fire, removal of loblolly pine, and planting of longleaf pine, existing association concepts are difficult to apply. The pre-settlement nature of these communities is somewhat obscure, because so few examples remain, and none of which are in very good condition.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Pinus echinata G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy      
 
30
Pinus palustris G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
90
Pinus serotina G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
40
Pinus taeda G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
90
Acer rubrum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy      
 
40
Castanea pumila G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
60
Diospyros virginiana G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy      
 
60
Nyssa sylvatica G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy      
 
30
Oxydendrum arboreum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy      
 
20
Quercus falcata G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy      
 
50
Quercus incana G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy      
 
20
Quercus laevis G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
100
Quercus margarettiae G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy      
 
20
Quercus nigra G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
90
Quercus velutina G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy      
 
30
Sassafras albidum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
100
Ilex opaca G1 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree subcanopy      
 
40
Leucothoe racemosa G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling      
 
20
Vaccinium corymbosum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling      
 
20
Vaccinium formosum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling      
 
30
Asimina parviflora G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
20
Gaultheria procumbens G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
30
Gaylussacia baccata G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
50
Gaylussacia frondosa G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling
 
100
Lyonia mariana G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
40
Toxicodendron pubescens G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
30
Vaccinium pallidum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
80
Vaccinium tenellum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
80
Gaylussacia dumosa G1 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
60
Kalmia angustifolia G1 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
50
Carphephorus bellidifolius G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
60
Euphorbia ipecacuanhae G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
60
Pyxidanthera barbulata G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
20
Pteridium aquilinum G1 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
40
Dichanthelium consanguineum G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
20
Schizachyrium scoparium G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
30
Gelsemium sempervirens G1 Liana Herb (field)      
 
30
Smilax glauca G1 Liana Herb (field)      
 
80
Smilax rotundifolia G1 Liana Herb (field)      
 
20


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association is a longleaf pine / scrub oak sandhill community located in the northern portion of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia and North Carolina on sandy loam soils. Even the slightest change of elevation at these sites can result in significant differences of soil moisture, thus, "wet" and "dry" variants occur in small-scale mosaics. Documented soil types include Spodic Quartzipsamments, Aquic Quartzipsamments, and Typic Quartzipsamments.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M.P. Schafale and A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 08Nov2014
Element Description Author(s): M.P. Schafale, A.S. Weakley, K.A. Palmquist, R.K. Peet and S. Carr
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Jan1999
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): Southeast Ecology Group

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Frost, C. C., and L. J. Musselman. 1987. History and vegetation of the Blackwater Ecologic Preserve. Castanea 52:16-46.

  • Palmquist, K. A., R. K. Peet, and S. C. Carr. 2016. Xeric longleaf pine vegetation of the Atlantic and East Gulf Coast Coastal Plain: An evaluation and revision of associations within the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Proceedings of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. [in press]

  • Peet, R. K. 2006. Ecological classification of longleaf pine woodlands. Pages 51-93 in: S. Jose, E. J. Jokela, and D. L. Miller, editors. The Longleaf Pine Ecosystem: Ecology, Silviculture, and Restoration. Springer Science Business Media, LLC, New York.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 1994. Inventory of longleaf pine natural communities. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 230 pp.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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