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Calamagrostis canadensis Western Wet Meadow
Translated Name: Bluejoint Western Wet Meadow
Common Name: Western Bluejoint Wet Meadow
Unique Identifier: CEGL001559
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This wet grassland association occurs widely throughout mountainous areas of the western United States and Canada. These grasslands are a relatively small, meadow association that occurs in broad glaciated valleys, openings in moist forests, silted-in beaver ponds, and narrow floodplains of lower montane canyons. Elevations range from 670 to 3415 m (2200-11,200 feet). Parent material is generally coarse alluvium or fine glacial tills. Soils are Inceptisols, Entisols, and occasionally Mollisols. Textures range from clay loam, silty clay and silt loam to sand. Occurrences may have an organic layer on the surface as well as significant amounts of sand and rock in the lower layers, and are poorly to moderately well-drained. Stands generally stay relatively wet to moist throughout the growing season, are often flooded in the spring, and the water table drops 50-80 cm from the surface by late summer. This association is typically a dense sward of graminoid cover dominated by Calamagrostis canadensis. Other graminoid species usually present include Carex aquatilis and Glyceria spp. Other Carex spp. that can be present in low amounts, depending on geographic location, include Carex utriculata, Carex nebrascensis, Carex canescens and Carex saxatilis. Forb cover is variable, from nearly absent to over 25%. Species include Caltha leptosepala, Senecio triangularis, Heracleum maximum, Mentha arvensis, Geum macrophyllum, Epilobium spp., plus many other species, depending on location. Shrubs may be present with 1-5% cover and may include Alnus incana, Symphoricarpos spp., and Salix spp. Trees are rare but can include 1-3% cover of Pinus contorta, Abies lasiocarpa, and Picea engelmannii.



Classification

Classification Confidence: High
Classification Comments: This association is defined as a PNV vegetation type. If it were renamed as a dominance type, the species would include Calamagrostis canadensis and Scirpus microcarpus.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Western North American Montane-Subalpine-Boreal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Vancouverian-Rocky Mountain Montane Wet Meadow & Marsh
Alliance Bluejoint - Slimstem Reedgrass - Bluegrass Wet Meadow

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL001560 Calamagrostis canadensis - Carex scopulorum - Mertensia ciliata Wet Meadow



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Calamagrostis canadensis Western Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Montana Calamagrostis canadensis Western Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain MTNHP 2002
North Dakota Calamagrostis canadensis Meadow Equivalent Certain NDNHI unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis - C. canadensis Habitat Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Mattson, D. J. 1984. Classification and environmental relationships of wetland vegetation in central Yellowstone National Park. Unpublished thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow. 409 pp.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis - Carex scopulorum / Mertensia ciliata Plant Association
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Johnston, B. C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. R2-ECOL-87-2. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Lakewood, CO. 429 pp.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis - Deschampsia cespitosa Habitat Type
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Mattson, D. J. 1984. Classification and environmental relationships of wetland vegetation in central Yellowstone National Park. Unpublished thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow. 409 pp.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis - Senecio triangularis Habitat Type
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Mattson, D. J. 1984. Classification and environmental relationships of wetland vegetation in central Yellowstone National Park. Unpublished thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow. 409 pp.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Murray, M. P. 2000. Wetland plant associations of the western hemlock zone in the central coastal and westslope Cascade Mountains. Unpublished report, Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland, OR. 82 pp. [http://www.natureserve.org/nhp/us/or/nw_or_wetlands.pdf]
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Sawyer, J. O., T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Evens. 2009. A manual of California vegetation. Second edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento CA. 1300 pp.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 1993. Riparian plant associations on the national forests of eastern Washington - Draft version 1. USDA Forest Service, Colville National Forest, Colville, WA. 203 pp.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis Community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Cooper, D. J. 1986a. Ecological studies of wetland vegetation, Cross Creek Valley, Holy Cross Wilderness Area, Sawatch Range, Colorado. Holy Cross Wilderness Defense Fund, Technical Report No. 2. 24 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Cooper, D. J., and T. R. Cottrell. 1990. Classification of riparian vegetation in the northern Colorado Front Range. Unpublished report prepared for The Nature Conservancy, Colorado Field Office, Boulder. 115 pp.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis Community Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis Habitat Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Cooper, S. V., C. Jean, and B. L. Heidel. 1999. Plant associations and related botanical inventory of the Beaverhead Mountains Section, Montana. Unpublished report to the Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 235 pp.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis Herbaceous Vegetation [Provisional]
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Keeler-Wolf, T., P. E. Moore, E. T. Reyes, J. M. Menke, D. N. Johnson, and D. L. Karavidas. 2012. Yosemite National Park vegetation classification and mapping project report. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/YOSE/NRTR--2012/598. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Calamagrostis canadensis Western Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., D. Cooper, K. Decker, D. Culver, and G. Kittel. 2003b. Statewide wetlands classification and characterization: Wetland plant associations of Colorado. Prepared for Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Denver, by Colorado Natural Heritage Program, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 79 pp. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/documents/2003/wetland_classification_final_report_2003.pdf]
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).
Related Concept Name: Association: Agropyro trachycauli - Calamagrostietum canadensis (Komarkova 1976)
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Komarkova, V. 1979. Alpine vegetation of the Indian Peaks area, Front Range, Colorado Rocky Mountains. Flora et vegetatio mundi 7, R. Tuxen, editor, 2 volumes, Vaduz: J. Cramer. 591 pp.
Related Concept Name: Bluejoint reedgrass association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 1987. Riparian zone associations - Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema national forests. Technical Paper 279-87. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 171 pp.
Related Concept Name: Mesic Grass Meadow
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Bierly, K. F. 1972. Meadow and fen vegetation in Big Meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park. Unpublished thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 102 pp.
Related Concept Name: Montane meadow Habitat
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Sawyer, J. O., and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 471 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES200.998 Temperate Pacific Subalpine-Montane Wet Meadow
CES300.729 North American Arid West Emergent Marsh
CES306.812 Rocky Mountain Alpine-Montane Wet Meadow


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (26Apr2000)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CA, CO, ID, MT, ND, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Canadian Province Distribution: AB, BC
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This type occurs widely throughout mountainous areas of the western United States and probably into Canada.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Division
Province Name: Pacific Lowland Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Willamette Valley and Puget Trough Section
Section Code: 242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Marine Regime Mountains
Province Name: Cascade Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Cascades Section
Section Code: M242B Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Eastern Cascades Section
Section Code: M242C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Mediterranean Regime Mountains
Province Name: Sierran Steppe - Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M261 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Klamath Mountains Section
Section Code: M261A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Cascades Section
Section Code: M261D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Sierra Nevada Section
Section Code: M261E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Yellowstone Highlands Section
Section Code: M331A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Overthrust Mountains Section
Section Code: M331D Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: South-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Parks and Ranges Section
Section Code: M331I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Wind River Mountain Section
Section Code: M331J Occurrence Status: Possible
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Idaho Batholith Section
Section Code: M332A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Valley Section
Section Code: M332B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Rocky Mountain Front Section
Section Code: M332C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Belt Mountains Section
Section Code: M332D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Beaverhead Mountains Section
Section Code: M332E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Challis Volcanics Section
Section Code: M332F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Northern Rocky Mountain Forest - Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M333 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Okanogan Highlands Section
Section Code: M333A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Flathead Valley Section
Section Code: M333B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Rockies Section
Section Code: M333C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Mountains Section
Section Code: M333D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Black Hills Coniferous Forest Province
Province Code: M334 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Black Hills Section
Section Code: M334A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This association is typically a dense sward of graminoid cover dominated by Calamagrostis canadensis. Other graminoid species usually present include Carex aquatilis and Glyceria spp. Other Carex spp. that can be present in low amounts, depending on location, include Carex utriculata, Carex microptera, Carex nebrascensis, Carex canescens, and Carex saxatilis. Forb cover is variable, from nearly absent to over 25%. Species include Caltha leptosepala, Senecio triangularis, Heracleum maximum, Mentha arvensis, Geum macrophyllum, and Epilobium spp. Shrubs may be present with 1-5% cover and may include Alnus incana and Salix spp. Trees are rare but can include Pinus contorta, Abies lasiocarpa, and Picea engelmannii. Chamerion angustifolium may be abundant (10%) reflecting recent disturbance (fire).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Geum macrophyllum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Mentha arvensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Calamagrostis canadensis G4 Graminoid Herb (field)
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These grasslands are a relatively small, meadow association that occurs in broad glaciated valleys, openings in moist forests, silted-in beaver ponds, and narrow floodplains of lower montane canyons. Elevations range from 670 to 3400 m (2200-11,200 feet). Sites are flat to gently sloping. Parent material is generally coarse alluvium or fine glacial tills. Soils are Inceptisols, Entisols, and occasionally Mollisols. Textures range from clay loam, silty clay and silt loam to sand. Stands may have an organic layer on the surface as well as significant amounts of sand and rock in the lower layers. Stands are poorly to moderately well-drained. Stands generally stay relatively wet to moist throughout the growing season, are often flooded in the spring, and the water table drops 50-80 cm from the surface by late summer.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Moderate to heavy grazing reduces the vigor of Calamagrostis canadensis, and other mostly non-native graminoids and forbs will dominate the site. Species include Poa pratensis, Agrostis stolonifera, Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis, and Achillea millefolium. Prescribed burning may increase the cover of rhizomatous species, such as Calamagrostis canadensis, an aggressive invader of burned sites, while reducing the abundance of other associated species. However, with repeated burning, non-native, rhizomatous Poa pratensis may be favored. Burning should be postponed if livestock grazing is necessary in the area. This is because of the high palatability of young Calamagrostis canadensis shoots which revegetate burned sites (Hansen et al. 1995).

Calamagrostis canadensis and the associated Carex species are effective streambank stabilizers due to their rhizomatous growth habit. Many Carex species tend to form a dense, thick sod highly resistant to erosion. Deschampsia cespitosa, another associated species, is not an effective streambank stabilizer due to its weak, fibrous root system (Hansen et al. 1995).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
Element Description Edition Date: 05Jan2005
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen, G. Kittel and K.A. Schulz
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Apr2000

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • ANHIC [Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre]. No date. Community database files. Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, Parks and Protected Areas Division, Alberta Community Development, Edmonton.

  • BHCI [Black Hills Community Inventory]. 1999. Unpublished element occurrence and plot data collected during the Black Hills Community Inventory. Available upon request from the South Dakota Natural Heritage Program, Pierre, and Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie.

  • Bierly, K. F. 1972. Meadow and fen vegetation in Big Meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park. Unpublished thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 102 pp.

  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2006-2017. Tracked natural plant communities. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/tracking/communities.html].

  • Caicco, S. L., J. M. Scott, B. Butterfield, and B. Csuti. 1995. A gap analysis of the management status of the vegetation of Idaho (U.S.A.). Conservation Biology 9(3):498-511.

  • Carsey, K., D. Cooper, K. Decker, D. Culver, and G. Kittel. 2003b. Statewide wetlands classification and characterization: Wetland plant associations of Colorado. Prepared for Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Denver, by Colorado Natural Heritage Program, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 79 pp. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/documents/2003/wetland_classification_final_report_2003.pdf]

  • Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.

  • Clary, W. P., and B. F. Webster. 1989. Managing grazing of riparian areas in the Intermountain Region. General Technical Report INT-263. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 11 pp.

  • Cogan, D., K. Varga, and G. Kittel. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. Final Project Report 2002-2005 Vegetation Mapping Project. Technical Memorandum 8260-06-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 87 pp. plus Appendixes A-F.

  • Cole, D. N. 1977b. Man's impact on wilderness: An example from Eagle Cap Wilderness, northeastern Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 307 pp.

  • Cooper, D. J. 1986a. Ecological studies of wetland vegetation, Cross Creek Valley, Holy Cross Wilderness Area, Sawatch Range, Colorado. Holy Cross Wilderness Defense Fund, Technical Report No. 2. 24 pp.

  • Cooper, D. J., and T. R. Cottrell. 1990. Classification of riparian vegetation in the northern Colorado Front Range. Unpublished report prepared for The Nature Conservancy, Colorado Field Office, Boulder. 115 pp.

  • Cooper, S. V., C. Jean, and B. L. Heidel. 1999. Plant associations and related botanical inventory of the Beaverhead Mountains Section, Montana. Unpublished report to the Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 235 pp.

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).

  • Girard, M. [1991]. ECODATA survey of riparian communities of Black Hills National Forest, 1986-1990. Unpublished files, field forms, notes, data analyses and type descriptions. Supervisor's Office, Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD.

  • Girard, M., D. L. Wheeler, and S. B. Mills. 1997. Classification of riparian communities on the Bighorn National Forest. R2-RR-97-02. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Sheridan, WY. 308 pp.

  • Gysel, L. W. 1960. An ecological study of the winter range of elk and mule deer in the Rocky Mountain National Park. Journal of Forestry 58:696-703.

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • Hansen, P. L., S. W. Chadde, and R. D. Pfister. 1988b. Riparian dominance types of Montana. University of Montana Miscellaneous Publication 49. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Missoula. 411 pp.

  • Hansen, P., K. Boggs, and R. Pfister. 1991. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in Montana. Unpublished draft version prepared for Montana Riparian Association, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula. 478 pp.

  • Hop, K., M. Reid, J. Dieck, S. Lubinski, and S. Cooper. 2007. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, WI. 131 pp. plus Appendices A-L.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Jankovsky-Jones, M., S. K. Rust, and R. K. Moseley. 1999. Riparian reference areas in Idaho: A catalog of plant associations and conservation sites. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-20. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 141 pp.

  • Johnston, B. C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. R2-ECOL-87-2. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Lakewood, CO. 429 pp.

  • Jones, G., and S. Ogle. 2000. Characterization abstracts for vegetation types on the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, and Shoshone national forests. Prepared for USDA Forest Service, Region 2 by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Keeler-Wolf, T., M. Schindel, S. San, P. Moore, and D. Hickson. 2003a. Classification of the vegetation of Yosemite National Park and surrounding environs in Tuolumne, Mariposa, Madera and Mono counties, California. Unpublished report by NatureServe in cooperation with the California Native Plant Society and California Department of Fish and Game, Wildlife and Habitat Data Analysis Branch, Sacramento, CA.

  • Keeler-Wolf, T., P. E. Moore, E. T. Reyes, J. M. Menke, D. N. Johnson, and D. L. Karavidas. 2012. Yosemite National Park vegetation classification and mapping project report. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/YOSE/NRTR--2012/598. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.

  • Komarkova, V. 1976. Alpine vegetation of the Indian Peaks Area, Front Range, Colorado Rocky Mountains. Unpublished dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder. 655 pp.

  • Komarkova, V. 1979. Alpine vegetation of the Indian Peaks area, Front Range, Colorado Rocky Mountains. Flora et vegetatio mundi 7, R. Tuxen, editor, 2 volumes, Vaduz: J. Cramer. 591 pp.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 1987. Riparian zone associations - Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema national forests. Technical Paper 279-87. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 171 pp.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 1993. Riparian plant associations on the national forests of eastern Washington - Draft version 1. USDA Forest Service, Colville National Forest, Colville, WA. 203 pp.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 2001. Classification and management of aquatic, riparian and wetland sites on the national forests of eastern Washington. Part 1: The series descriptions. 429 pp. plus appendix. [http://www.reo.gov/col/wetland_classification/wetland_classification.pdf]

  • MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 2002b. List of ecological communities for Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, Helena, MT.

  • Marriott, H. J., D. Faber-Langendoen, A. McAdams, D. Stutzman, and B. Burkhart. 1999. The Black Hills Community Inventory: Final report. The Nature Conservancy, Midwest Conservation Science Center, Minneapolis, MN.

  • Mattson, D. J. 1984. Classification and environmental relationships of wetland vegetation in central Yellowstone National Park. Unpublished thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow. 409 pp.

  • McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.

  • Murray, M. P. 2000. Wetland plant associations of the western hemlock zone in the central coastal and westslope Cascade Mountains. Unpublished report, Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland, OR. 82 pp. [http://www.natureserve.org/nhp/us/or/nw_or_wetlands.pdf]

  • Mutel, C. F. 1976. From grassland to glacier: An ecology of Boulder County, Colorado. Johnson Publishing Company, Boulder. 169 pp.

  • Mutel, C., and J. W. Marr. 1973. A vegetative study of three montane herbaceous basins. Journal of the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science 7(4):28 (Abstract).

  • Mutz, K. M., and J. Queiroz. 1983. Riparian community classification for the Centennial Mountains and South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service Intermountain Region under contract 53-84M8-2-0048 by Meiiji Resource Consultants, Layton, UT. 168 pp.

  • NDNHI [North Dakota Natural Heritage Inventory]. No date. Unpublished data. Vegetation classification of North Dakota. North Dakota Natural Heritage Inventory, North Dakota Parks & Recreation Department, Bismarck.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • RMS. 1998. Unpublished, untitled document containing Black Hills riparian vegetation classification, key and tables of canopy cover and constancy estimates. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Rapid City, SD.

  • Reid, M. S., S. V. Cooper, and G. Kittel. 2004. Vegetation classification of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. Final report for USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, International Peace Park Mapping Project. NatureServe, Arlington VA.

  • Salas, D., J. Stevens, and K. Schulz. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Technical Memorandum No. 8260-05-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 161 pp. plus Appendices A-L (733 pp.).

  • Sawyer, J. O., T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Evens. 2009. A manual of California vegetation. Second edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento CA. 1300 pp.

  • Sawyer, J. O., and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 471 pp.

  • Titus, J. H., M. Kerr, E. Crowe, and B. Kovalchik. 1998. Riparian zones of eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.

  • Wilson, H. C. 1969. Ecology and successional patterns of wet meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Unpublished dissertation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. 99 pp.

  • Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985a. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 78 pp.


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