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Pinus serotina / Cyrilla racemiflora - Lyonia lucida - Ilex glabra Swamp Woodland
Translated Name: Pond Pine / Swamp Titi - Shining Fetterbush - Inkberry Swamp Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL003670
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This woodland, with a canopy dominated by Pinus serotina (cover greater than 50%) over a dense shrub layer, occurs within a mosaic of other peatland communities on poorly drained interstream flats of outer coastal terraces. The canopy is variable in closure, from closed to fairly sparse; larger shrubs range from 2-4 m in height. The community also occurs in isolated wetlands such as Carolina bays. Other canopy species in this community can include Gordonia lasianthus, Magnolia virginiana, Persea palustris, Acer rubrum var. trilobum (in fire-suppressed examples), Pinus taeda (in disturbed examples), and less commonly, Chamaecyparis thyoides. The bay species, Gordonia lasianthus, Persea palustris, and Magnolia virginiana, are present also in the shrub layer. Other shrubs present include Ilex myrtifolia, Clethra alnifolia, Morella caroliniensis (= Myrica heterophylla), Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), and Viburnum nudum var. nudum. Herbs generally are not common. This community is present on the Coastal Plain from northern North Carolina to South Carolina, but probably absent from Georgia and northern Florida.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Virginia high pocosins are Pinus serotina over Lyonia lucida, Ilex coriacea, and Kalmia carolina; they lack Cyrilla racemiflora and are probably not appropriately placed here [see Pinus serotina / Ilex glabra / Woodwardia virginica Swamp Woodland (CEGL004652)]. Note the existence of the similarly named but different Pinus serotina / Cyrilla racemiflora - Lyonia lucida - Vaccinium fuscatum Swamp Woodland (CEGL004434), which occurs in small depression wetlands and has very different landscape processes.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Evergreen Hardwood - Conifer Swamp
Group Coastal Plain Mixed Evergreen Swamp
Alliance Pond Pine Swamp Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003671 Pinus serotina - Gordonia lasianthus / Lyonia lucida Swamp Woodland
CEGL003846 Pinus serotina / Lyonia lucida - Ilex glabra - (Cyrilla racemiflora) Wet Shrubland
CEGL004434 Pinus serotina / Cyrilla racemiflora - Lyonia lucida - Vaccinium fuscatum Swamp Woodland
CEGL004652 Pinus serotina / Ilex glabra / Woodwardia virginica Swamp Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Pond Pine Woodland (Shrub Subtype) Broader   Schafale 2003
South Carolina Pond pine woodland Broader   Nelson 1986


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: IIB2b. Pond Pine Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pond Pine (36)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pond Pine Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pond Pine Woodland (Shrub Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Pond Pine: 98
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.267 Atlantic Coastal Plain Peatland Pocosin and Canebrake


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (30Jan2001)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This community still has extensive occurrences (several exceeding 20,000 acres in size) in the Outer Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Its extent is probably about 60% of the historical extent, because of ditching, draining, and farming of wetlands. This community had a natural fire regime involving periodic fires; this fire regime is now altered by fire suppression, though wildfires in these systems are often uncontrollable and burn extensive areas. Several examples are on protected areas (though fire regime alteration is still the case, since these extensive blocks of high-fuel communities cannot be control-burned legally).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs in large peatlands in the outer and middle Coastal Plain of North Carolina and northern South Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Other canopy species in this community are Gordonia lasianthus, Magnolia virginiana, Persea palustris, Acer rubrum, Pinus taeda, and less commonly Chamaecyparis thyoides. The bay species, Gordonia, Persea and Magnolia, are present also in the shrub layer. Other shrubs present include Ilex myrtifolia, Clethra alnifolia, Morella caroliniensis (= Myrica heterophylla), Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), and Viburnum nudum. Herbs generally are not common.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Pinus serotina G3 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Cyrilla racemiflora G3 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Lyonia lucida G3 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Smilax laurifolia G3 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Kalmia cuneata G3 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Woodwardia virginica G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Arundinaria gigantea G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Kalmia cuneata
  (White-wicky)
G3  

Vegetation Structure
Stratum Growth Form
Height of Stratum (m)
Cover
Class
%
Min
Cover %
Max
Cover %
Tree canopy Other/unknown
 
 
 
 
Shrub/sapling (tall & short) Liana
 
 
 
 
Tall shrub/sapling Shrub
 
 
 
 
Short shrub/sapling Shrub
 
 
 
 
Herb (field) Herb
 
 
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Fire regime is the important determinant of the development of this community. Fire-return time of greater than approximately 15 years favors development of this community over other pocosin types. Soils have intermediate to deep peat layers and intermediate to long hydroperiods. They are moist and nutrient-poor although some may receive nutrients from water flowing into the community; series in North Carolina include Croatan (Typic Medisaprist), Murville (Typic Haplaquod), Lynn Haven (Typic Haplaquod), Torhunta (Typic Humaquept), Ponzer (Terric Medisaprist), Roper (Histic Humaquept) and Pungo (Typic Medisaprist). The community is most common within a mosaic of other peatland communities on poorly drained interstream flats of outer coastal terraces, but also occurs in isolated wetlands such as Carolina bays.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D.J. Allard and S. Landaal
Element Description Edition Date: 27Apr1994
Element Description Author(s): S. Landaal
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Jan2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Doyle, K. M., and D. J. Allard. 1990. Applying an ecosystem classification on national forest land in the southeastern United States: A pilot study. 108 pp. plus appendices.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Kologiski, R. L. 1977. The phytosociology of the Green Swamp, North Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin No. 250. 101 pp.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.


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