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Tsuga heterophylla / Ledum glandulosum / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanus Treed Bog
Translated Name: Western Hemlock / Western Labrador-tea / Slough Sedge - American Skunk-cabbage Treed Bog
Unique Identifier: CEGL000477
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This mid-seral to climax association occurs on perennially saturated or flooded peat soils adjacent to open mire and shrub swamps. Restricted to coastal Oregon, this vegetation is distinguished from similar associations farther north by the dominance of Ledum glandulosum instead of Ledum groenlandicum. The tree layer is dominated by Tsuga heterophylla with up to 60% cover. Thuja plicata is the second most abundant species of tree, but most specimens are suppressed in the waterlogged soils, older ones are dying, and no old-growth is evident. Other species present in lesser amounts are Picea sitchensis and Pinus contorta var. contorta. The dense shrub layer is dominated by Gaultheria shallon and Ledum glandulosum, both with a constancy of 100% and cover up to 40%. Vaccinium ovatum, Vaccinium parvifolium, and Morella californica (= Myrica californica) are present in lesser amounts. Both trees and shrubs favor elevated microsites on decaying logs, stumps, and old root wads. Wetland species dominate the herb layer, with Carex obnupta and Lysichiton americanus present with constancy of 100% but with Carex being more abundant. Other wetland species such as Juncus sp., Oenanthe sarmentosa, Blechnum spicant, and Athyrium filix-femina are typical. The moss layer is conspicuous, with Sphagnum palustre always present and covering up to 20% of the surface. Stands are subject to windthrow in severe winter storms, which frequently occur.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This association formerly had a larger representation of Pinus contorta var. contorta, but most have died from successional changes or flooding caused by beavers. This association is distinguished from similar types farther north by the dominance in the shrub layer of Ledum glandulosum instead of Ledum groenlandicum. The latter species extends in mires southward to northern California, but the area covered by these mires diminishes rapidly to the south, and most wetland sites are not big enough for these stands to develop.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.2 - Temperate to Polar Bog & Fen
Division 2.C.2.Na - North American Bog & Fen
Macrogroup North Pacific Bog & Fen
Group North Pacific Maritime Wooded Bog & Poor Fen
Alliance Western Hemlock - Western Red-cedar / Western Labrador-tea Treed Bog

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Oregon Tsuga heterophylla / Ledum glandulosum / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanus Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Tsuga heterophylla / Ledum glandulosum / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanus Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.
Related Concept Name: Tsuga heterophylla / Ledum glandulosum / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanus
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES204.063 North Pacific Bog and Fen
CES204.090 North Pacific Hardwood-Conifer Swamp


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (21Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: his mid-seral to climax association is restricted to the northern coast of Oregon. It was probably never common and may have only occurred at two or three sites historically. The very limited known remnant stands may comprise 30-50% of the original extent of this vegetation type. While current remnants are protected, draining and logging have destroyed many stands. Organic soils and permanently saturated to flooded conditions are required for this association to persist. Organic soils are scarce and their extent diminishes rapidly to the south.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: OR
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is restricted to coastal northern Oregon.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Regime Mountains
Province Name: Cascade Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Oregon and Washington Coast Ranges Section
Section Code: M242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Tsuga heterophylla G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Gaultheria shallon G1 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Ledum glandulosum G1 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Lysichiton americanus G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Carex obnupta G1 Graminoid Herb (field)
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): J.A. Christy
Element Description Edition Date: 26Nov1997
Element Description Author(s): J.A. Christy
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J.A. Christy

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Christy, J. A. 2001a. Low-elevation Sphagnum wetlands in western Oregon. Report to Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 90 pp.

  • Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.

  • Franklin, J. F. 1966. Vegetation and soils in the subalpine forests of the southern Washington Cascade Range. Ph.D. dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman. 132 pp.

  • Glad, J. B., R. Mishaga, and R. R. Halse. 1987. Habitat characteristics of Sidalcea nelsoniana Piper (Malvaceae) at Walker Flat, Yamhill County, Oregon. Northwest Science 61:257-263.

  • Howarth, J. 1995. Gearhart Bog Preserve: Plant community mapping and background information. The Nature Conservancy, Oregon Field Office, Portland. 36 pp. plus appendices.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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