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Pinus virginiana - Pinus rigida - Quercus stellata / Ceanothus americanus / Thalictrum revolutum Woodland
Translated Name: Virginia Pine - Pitch Pine - Post Oak / New Jersey-tea / Waxyleaf Meadowrue Woodland
Common Name: Low-Elevation Blue Ridge Serpentine Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL007721
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community includes pine-oak woodlands over serpentine, olivine, dunite, and other ultramafic rocks, at elevations from 550 to 950 m (1800-3100 feet), in the Southern Blue Ridge mountains of North Carolina and extreme northern Georgia. The open canopy is typically dominated by Pinus virginiana, Pinus rigida, Pinus strobus, Quercus stellata, Quercus rubra, and Quercus falcata (lower elevations only), with other species including Sassafras albidum, Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Betula lenta, Liriodendron tulipifera, Nyssa sylvatica, and Oxydendrum arboreum. Typical shrub and woody vine species are Ceanothus americanus, Cornus florida, Kalmia latifolia, Castanea pumila, Gaultheria procumbens, Gaylussacia baccata, Lyonia ligustrina var. ligustrina, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Pyrularia pubera, Rhododendron calendulaceum, Rhododendron maximum, Smilax rotundifolia, and Vaccinium stamineum. The herb layer can be very well-developed or patchy, and in more open examples can be graminoid-dominated.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Pitch Pine Barrens
Alliance Southern Blue Ridge Pitch Pine - Oak Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003768 Pinus rigida - Quercus alba / Sporobolus heterolepis - Andropogon gerardii Woodland
CEGL004968 Pinus rigida - Quercus stellata / Andropogon gerardii - Packera paupercula Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Ultramafic Outcrop Barren (Virginia Pine Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Ultramafic Outcrop Barren (Virginia Pine Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.347 Eastern Serpentine Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (22Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This serpentine woodland is described from a small number of sites at low elevations in the Southern Blue Ridge of Georgia and North Carolina. Serpentine (or other ultramafic) lithology is necessary for development of this community type, and there are very limited exposures of suitable rocks in the Southern Blue Ridge. Several of the known locations where this community occurred have been destroyed by mining or altered by logging. None of the known locations have protected status, although one site is located in the Chattahoochee National Forest (Georgia).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, NC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs in the Southern Blue Ridge mountains of North Carolina and extreme northern Georgia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The open canopy is typically dominated by Pinus virginiana, Pinus rigida, Pinus strobus, Quercus stellata, Quercus rubra, and Quercus falcata (lower elevations only), with other species including Sassafras albidum, Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Betula lenta, Liriodendron tulipifera, Nyssa sylvatica, and Oxydendrum arboreum. Typical shrub and woody vine species are Ceanothus americanus, Cornus florida, Kalmia latifolia, Castanea pumila, Gaultheria procumbens, Gaylussacia baccata, Lyonia ligustrina var. ligustrina, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Pyrularia pubera, Rhododendron calendulaceum, Rhododendron maximum, Smilax rotundifolia, and Vaccinium stamineum. Typical herbaceous species are Thalictrum revolutum, Ageratina aromatica, Anemone virginiana, Asclepias verticillata, Asplenium platyneuron, Symphyotrichum patens var. patens (= Aster patens var. patens), Campanula divaricata, Chimaphila maculata, Chrysopsis mariana, Coreopsis major, Danthonia sericea, Danthonia spicata, Dichanthelium spp., Erigeron pulchellus, Erigeron strigosus, Euphorbia corollata, Houstonia purpurea, Hypericum punctatum, Lespedeza hirta, Lespedeza procumbens, Liatris spicata, Linum virginianum, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Polystichum acrostichoides, Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, Schizachyrium scoparium, Scleria ciliata, Sisyrinchium angustifolium, Sisyrinchium mucronatum, Solidago arguta var. caroliniana, Triosteum perfoliatum, and Viola pedata. At the lowest elevation occurrences, additional typical species include Symphyotrichum dumosum (= Aster dumosus), Cheilanthes lanosa, Desmodium ciliare, Desmodium nudiflorum, Desmodium rotundifolium, Melica mutica, Mimosa microphylla (= Schrankia microphylla), Piptochaetium avenaceum, Pityopsis graminifolia, Polygala polygama, and Solidago odora var. odora.

In a plot attributed to this type from the Chattahoochee National Forest, the herbaceous layer was dominated by Thalictrum macrostylum. Other characteristic herbs include Schizachyrium scoparium, Sorghastrum nutans, Andropogon gerardii, Osmunda regalis, Asclepias verticillata, Helianthus microcephalus, Panicum virgatum, Solidago odora, Euphorbia corollata, Ageratina aromatica, Eryngium yuccifolium, and Coreopsis major (NatureServe Ecology unpubl. data).


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus stellata G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus rigida G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus virginiana G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Kalmia latifolia G1 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Ceanothus americanus G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Thalictrum macrostylum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Thalictrum revolutum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Poa saltuensis G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Thalictrum macrostylum
  (Small-leaf Meadowrue)
G3G4  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This community includes pine-oak woodlands over serpentine, olivine, dunite, and other ultramafic rocks, at elevations from 1800-3100 feet, in the Southern Blue Ridge of North Carolina and extreme northern Georgia.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley and M.P. Schafale
Element Description Edition Date: 14Apr1998
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley and M.P. Schafale
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley, mod. M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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