NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Sparganium americanum - (Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum) - Epilobium leptophyllum Seep
Translated Name: American Bur-reed - (Simple-stem Bur-reed) - Bog Willowherb Seep
Common Name: Piedmont/Mountain Semipermanent Impoundment (Montane Boggy Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL004510
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This vegetation occupies marshes and impoundments within small rivers or streams with seasonal flooding, especially in areas currently or formerly flooded by beavers or restricted by natural bedrock or boulder accumulation. Most sites were heavily altered by logging in the late 1800s through the early 1900s, and this disturbance may have altered the distribution, cover, and physiognomy of these wetlands. Soils are variable and may consist of poorly to very poorly drained muck or organic-rich loamy soils of varying texture. Sparganium americanum strongly dominates the dense herb layer at many sites, although at some locations in the Allegheny Mountains and on the Cumberland Plateau, it is replaced by Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum. Common associates vary with geography and include Agrostis hyemalis, Callitriche heterophylla, Carex scoparia, Carex gynandra, Carex lurida, Carex stipata, Eleocharis obtusa, Epilobium coloratum, Epilobium leptophyllum, Galium tinctorium, Glyceria melicaria, Glyceria striata, Hydrocotyle americana, Hypericum mutilum, Impatiens capensis, Juncus effusus, Leersia oryzoides, Ludwigia palustris, Lycopus uniflorus, Poa palustris, Polygonum hydropiperoides, Polygonum sagittatum, Polygonum punctatum, Potamogeton spp., Scirpus cyperinus, Scirpus hattorianus, Scutellaria lateriflora, Solidago rugosa, Sphenopholis pensylvanica, and Symphyotrichum prenanthoides (= Aster prenanthoides). More locally, Glyceria grandis is an abundant grass. A very sparse shrub layer may be present.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Similar vegetation may occur in the Ridge and Valley of Virginia in abandoned beaver ponds. [See VDNH's Laurel Fork report, Carex stipata - Sparganium americanum subassociation (Fleming and Moorhead 1996).]

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Ne - Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Wet Prairie & Marsh
Group Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain River & Basin Freshwater Marsh
Alliance Southeastern Floodplain Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Tennessee Sparganium americanum - (Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum) - Epilobium leptophyllum Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data
West Virginia Sparganium (americanum, chlorocarpum) marsh Equivalent Certain Byers et al. 2007


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Picea rubens / Vaccinium angustifolium - Epilobium leptophyllum Association: Carex stipata - Sparganium americanum Subassociation
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1996. Ecological land units of the Laurel Fork Area, Highland County, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 114 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Sparganium americanum - Epilobium leptophyllum Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Sparganium americanum - Scirpus spp. herbaceous wetland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.
Related Concept Name: Sparganium americanum herbaceous vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hall, M. E. 2005a. Classification and gradient analysis of plant communities at Short Mountain Wildlife Management Area, Hampshire County, West Virginia. M.S. thesis, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC. 108 pp.
Related Concept Name: Appalachian Bog
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Disturbed Bog
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Wichmann, B. 2009. Vegetation of geographically isolated montane non-alluvial wetlands of the Southern Blue Ridge of North Carolina. Masters thesis, North Carolina State, Raleigh. [http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/theses/available/etd-05152009-120239/unrestricted/etd.pdf]
Related Concept Name: IID6a. Natural Impoundment Pond
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.018 Central Interior Highlands and Appalachian Sinkhole and Depression Pond
CES202.069 High Allegheny Wetland
CES202.706 South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3? (09Apr2010)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This association is known from only a small number of sites, each very small. Most sites are dependent on periodic re-establishment by beaver flooding. The rank is questionable because the total range and abundance of this association is not clearly known.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, TN, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is known from a few high-elevation sites in the Southern Cumberland/ Ridge and Valley of Georgia, and the greater Allegheny Mountains area of Virginia and West Virginia. It is reported from Tennessee; more information is needed.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: 231D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Vegetation of this community type is almost entirely herbaceous, although some stands may have a sparse (<10%) shrub layer. Sparganium spp. strongly dominate the dense herb layer. Sparganium americanum dominates in Virginia occurrences; in the Allegheny Mountains and Cumberland Plateau, it is sometimes replaced by Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum. Scirpus expansus may dominate or codominate with Sparganium americanum in some areas. Common associates vary with geography and include Agrostis hyemalis, Callitriche heterophylla, Carex scoparia, Carex gynandra, Carex lurida, Carex stipata, Eleocharis obtusa, Epilobium coloratum, Epilobium leptophyllum, Galium tinctorium, Glyceria melicaria, Glyceria striata, Hydrocotyle americana, Hypericum mutilum, Impatiens capensis, Juncus effusus, Leersia oryzoides, Ludwigia palustris, Lycopus uniflorus, Poa palustris, Polygonum hydropiperoides, Polygonum sagittatum, Polygonum punctatum, Potamogeton spp., Scirpus cyperinus, Scirpus hattorianus, Scutellaria lateriflora, Solidago rugosa, Sphenopholis pensylvanica, and Symphyotrichum prenanthoides (= Aster prenanthoides). More locally, Glyceria grandis is an abundant grass. Epilobium leptophyllum, Juncus brevicaudatus, and Poa palustris are state-rare plants associated with the type.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Epilobium leptophyllum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Hydrocotyle americana G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Ludwigia palustris G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Sparganium americanum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Carex gynandra G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex scoparia G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex stipata G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Eleocharis obtusa G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Glyceria grandis G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Juncus brevicaudatus G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Juncus effusus G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Leersia oryzoides G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Poa palustris G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Scirpus expansus G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This vegetation occupies marshes and impoundments within small rivers or streams with seasonal flooding, especially in areas currently or formerly flooded by beavers or restricted by natural bedrock or boulder accumulation. In the Allegheny Mountains area, it occurs within northern hardwood or red spruce forest zones at 600 to 1300 m elevation; in Virginia, it is restricted to gentle, upper-slope streamhead valleys above 1060 m (3500 feet) elevation, where it occurs in patch-mosaics with wet spruce forests, sphagnous seepage bogs, and open to scrubby meadows; it can also occur at lower elevations, for example on the northern Cumberland Plateau where it is found at 350 m elevation. Most sites were heavily altered by logging in the late 1800s through the early 1900s, and this disturbance may have altered the distribution, cover, and physiognomy of these wetlands. Soils are variable and may consist of poorly to very poorly drained muck, or organic-rich loamy soils of varying texture. Average depth of organic soil is 35 cm. Hydric soil indicators include histisol, histic epipedon, hydrogen sulfide, 2 cm muck, sandy gleyed matrix, depleted matrix, redox depressions, and iron/manganese masses. Soil pH averages 4.5 (n=78) and can be as low as 3.9. Soil chemistry is characterized by high B, Fe, S; moderate Al, Ca, Cu, K, Na, Mg, Zn, exchangeable nitrogen, and total exchange capacity; and low Mn, P, and organic matter (n=7).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This association is characteristic of beaver-influenced wetlands.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G. Fleming and P. Coulling
Element Description Edition Date: 02Apr2010
Element Description Author(s): G. Fleming, P. Coulling, S.C. Gawler and E.A. Byers
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Apr2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Allard, H. A., and E. C. Leonard. 1952. The Canaan and the Stony River valleys of West Virginia, their former magnificent spruce forests, their vegetation and floristics today. Castanea 17:1-60.

  • Byers, E. A., J. P. Vanderhorst, and B. P. Streets. 2007. Classification and conservation assessment of high elevation wetland communities in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins.

  • FNA Editorial Committee [Flora of North America Editorial Committee], editors. 2000. Flora of North America, north of Mexico. Volume 22. Magnoliophyta: Alismatidae, Arecidae, Commelinidae (in part), and Zingiberidae. Oxford University Press, New York. 352 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1996. Ecological land units of the Laurel Fork Area, Highland County, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 114 pp. plus appendices.

  • Hall, M. E. 2005a. Classification and gradient analysis of plant communities at Short Mountain Wildlife Management Area, Hampshire County, West Virginia. M.S. thesis, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC. 108 pp.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Putnam, N. [1995]. Plant communities of the Meadow River wetlands. Final report submitted to the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Strausbaugh, P. D., and E. L. Core. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. Second edition. Seneca Books, Inc. Grantsville, WV. 1079 pp.

  • Suiter, D. W. 1995. The vascular flora, rare species and plant migrations of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Master's thesis, Marshal University, Huntington, WV. 174 pp.

  • Suiter, D. W., and D. K. Evans. 1999. Vascular flora and rare species of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Castanea 64: 23-49.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., B. P. Streets, Z. Arcaro, and S. C. Gawler. 2010. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gauley River National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2010/148. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2007/092. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 396 pp.

  • Wichmann, B. 2009. Vegetation of geographically isolated montane non-alluvial wetlands of the Southern Blue Ridge of North Carolina. Masters thesis, North Carolina State, Raleigh. [http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/theses/available/etd-05152009-120239/unrestricted/etd.pdf]


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016