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Rhynchospora inundata - Eriocaulon decangulare - Panicum virgatum - Muhlenbergia expansa Marsh
Translated Name: Narrow-fruit Horned Beaksedge - Ten-angle Pipewort - Switchgrass - Cutover Muhly Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL004509
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: Characteristic species are Rhynchospora inundata, Eriocaulon decangulare, Panicum virgatum, and Muhlenbergia expansa. Stands also contain Rhynchospora careyana, and are known from the Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Additional information to be added from North Carolina Vegetation Survey data.


Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: Nomenclatural notes on Muhlenbergia (C. Nordman/M. Pyne 10-07): NatureServe Ecology varies from Kartesz (1999) on the nomenclature of three related southeastern Muhlenbergia taxa. The names in Kartesz (1999) for these plants are Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin. var. capillaris; Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin. var. filipes (M.A. Curtis) Chapman ex Beal; and Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin. var. trichopodes (Ell.) Vasey. We have chosen to treat all three of these at the specific level, as (respectively) Muhlenbergia capillaris Lam.; Muhlenbergia filipes M.A. Curtis; and Muhlenbergia expansa (Poir.) Trin. A more recent innovation, which we will adopt at some point, is the recent recognition that Muhlenbergia sericea (Michx.) P.M. Peterson is the correct name (based on nomenclatural priority) for the plant formerly known as Muhlenbergia filipes M.A. Curtis (= Muhlenbergia capillaris var. filipes) (Gustafson and Peterson 2007).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Ne - Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Wet Prairie & Marsh
Group Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Pondshore & Wet Prairie
Alliance Southeastern Coastal Plain Pondshore Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and

Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at:
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
South Carolina Depression Meadow Broader   Nelson 1986

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.262 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Depression Pond

NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (21May2002)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This association is apparently restricted to the Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is apparently restricted to the Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation Summary: This very rare association from South Carolina contains Eriocaulon decangulare var. decangulare, Panicum virgatum var. virgatum (= Panicum virgatum var. cubense), and Muhlenbergia expansa, in addition to Rhynchospora careyana.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Eriocaulon decangulare var. decangulare G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
Muhlenbergia capillaris var. trichopodes G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
Panicum virgatum var. virgatum G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
Rhynchospora careyana G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  

Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association is found in seasonally flooded upland depressions.

Dynamic Processes

Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank

Concept Author(s): R.K. Peet, E. Kjellmark and A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 21May2002
Element Description Author(s): M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21May2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Gustafson, D. J., and P. M. Peterson. 2007. Re-examination of Muhlenbergia capillaris, M. expansa and M. sericea (Poaceae: Muhlenbergiinae). Journal Botanical Research Institute of Texas 1(1):85-89.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

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Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016