NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Lolium (arundinaceum, pratense) Ruderal Grassland
Translated Name: (Tall Fescue, Meadow Ryegrass) Ruderal Grassland
Common Name: Cultivated Grassland
Unique Identifier: CEGL004048
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association includes grassland pastures and hayfields, more-or-less cultural, though sometimes no longer actively maintained. It is currently defined for the Central and Southern Appalachians, Ozarks, Ouachita Mountains, and parts of the Piedmont and Interior Low Plateau, but it is possible throughout much of the eastern United States and southern Canada. The dominant species in this type are the European "tall or meadow fescues" (Lolium or Schedonorus spp.) of uncertain and controversial generic placement. Several other exotic grasses, including Agrostis gigantea, Dactylis glomerata, Holcus lanatus, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis, are common associates. These communities are sometimes nearly monospecific but can also be very diverse and contain many native as well as exotic species of grasses, sedges, and forbs. Exotic forbs include the legumes Lespedeza cuneata, Trifolium campestre, Trifolium hybridum, Trifolium pratense, and Trifolium repens, as well as Achillea millefolium var. occidentalis, Calystegia sepium, Daucus carota, Leucanthemum vulgare, Oxalis stricta, and Plantago lanceolata. Common native herbs include Apocynum cannabinum, Desmodium canescens, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Erigeron annuus, Fragaria virginiana, Potentilla simplex, Solanum carolinense, Solidago canadensis, and Verbesina occidentalis.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Lolium pratense and Lolium arundinaceum are two closely related species which were traditionally treated as Festuca pratensis (= Festuca elatior) and Festuca arundinacea, and could alternately be treated as Schedonorus pratensis and Schedonorus arundinaceus. Conversion to Kartesz (1999) standard has necessitated the shift to the Lolium names from Festuca.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.B - Temperate & Boreal Grassland & Shrubland
Formation 2.B.2 - Temperate Grassland & Shrubland
Division 2.B.2.Ne - Southeastern North American Grassland & Shrubland
Macrogroup Southeastern Ruderal Grassland & Shrubland
Group Southeastern Ruderal Grassland & Shrubland
Alliance Eastern Ruderal Grassland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006107 Dactylis glomerata - Phleum pratense - Festuca spp. - Solidago spp. Ruderal Meadow
CEGL006333 Schizachyrium scoparium - (Andropogon virginicus) - Solidago spp. Ruderal Meadow



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Lolium (arundinaceum, pratense) Ruderal Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Oklahoma Festuca arundinacea herbaceous association Equivalent Certain Hoagland 2000
Tennessee Lolium (arundinaceum, pratense) Ruderal Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Festuca pratensis - (Holcus lanatus) - Solidago canadensis herbaceous vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.
Related Concept Name: Lolium (arundinaceum, pratense) Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Nordman, C. 2004a. Vascular plant community classification for Stones River National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 64 pp. plus appendices and CD.
Related Concept Name: Cleared Areas
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schmalzer, P. A., and H. R. DeSelm. 1982. Vegetation, endangered and threatened plants, critical plant habitats and vascular flora of the Obed Wild and Scenic River. Unpublished report. USDI National Park Service, Obed Wild and Scenic River. 2 volumes. 369 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (05Jan2000)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Reasons: This vegetation is dominated by an exotic species, is of anthropogenic origin, and is thus not a conservation priority.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, AR, GA, KY, MD, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, VA, WV
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This association is currently documented from the southern half of the Central Appalachians through the Gulf Coastal Plain and west to the Ozarks and Ouachitas. It is possible throughout much of the eastern United States.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 221H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Ozark Broadleaf Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Boston Mountains Section
Section Code: M222A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Regime Mountains
Province Name: Ouachita Mixed Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Ouachita Mountains Section
Section Code: M231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This association represents early-successional herbaceous and herb-shrub vegetation dominated by or having a large component of exotic grasses and legumes. The dominant species in this association are the European "tall or meadow fescues" (Lolium or spp.). These communities are sometimes nearly monospecific but can also be very diverse and contain many native species of grasses, sedges, and forbs. Woody encroachment is restricted to low cover by Toxicodendron radicans and species of Rubus, both of which become more abundant in older stands. Scattered individuals of various shrubs may be present, including Crataegus crus-galli, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Fraxinus americana, Rosa multiflora, Robinia pseudoacacia, Cornus florida, Elaeagnus umbellata, Sambucus canadensis (= Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis), and Sassafras albidum. In the Central Appalachians and northern Cumberlands, the dominant exotic grasses include Agrostis gigantea, Dactylis glomerata, Holcus lanatus, Lolium pratense, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis. Exotic forbs include the legumes Lespedeza cuneata, Trifolium campestre, Trifolium hybridum, Trifolium pratense, and Trifolium repens, as well as Achillea millefolium var. occidentalis, Calystegia sepium, Daucus carota, Leucanthemum vulgare, Oxalis stricta, and Plantago lanceolata. Common native herbs include Apocynum cannabinum, Desmodium canescens, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Erigeron annuus, Fragaria virginiana, Potentilla simplex, Solanum carolinense, Solidago canadensis, and Verbesina occidentalis. In the Black Belt region of Alabama and Mississippi, it is commonly found in mixture with Paspalum dilatatum (Bransby n.d.), and the exotic Bromus tectorum may be present in stands.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Berberis canadensis GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Achillea millefolium GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Apocynum cannabinum GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Calystegia sepium GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Daucus carota GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Desmodium canescens GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Erigeron annuus GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Fragaria virginiana GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lespedeza cuneata GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Leucanthemum vulgare GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Oxalis stricta GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Plantago lanceolata GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Potentilla simplex GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Solanum carolinense GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Solidago canadensis GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Trifolium hybridum GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Trifolium pratense GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Trifolium repens GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Agrostis gigantea GNA Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Bromus tectorum GNA Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Dactylis glomerata GNA Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Dichanthelium clandestinum GNA Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Holcus lanatus GNA Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Phleum pratense GNA Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Poa pratensis GNA Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Berberis canadensis
  (American Barberry)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association includes grassland pastures and hayfields, more-or-less cultural, though sometimes no longer actively maintained. It occurs in areas which have been cleared in the past, including abandoned farmlands, strip mines, and other areas disturbed by human activities.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This association varies greatly depending upon past land use and recent history of the site. Some examples that have been recently farmed may be monocultures of Lolium, whereas other fields that were traditionally lightly grazed may have much higher diversity. If not grazed, periodically mowed or burned, vegetation will succeed towards woody physiognomy.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 18Dec2006
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley and S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Jan2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): K.D. Patterson

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bransby, D. L. No date. Herbaceous biomass sources for the southeastern United States: Have all the options been properly evaluated? Department of Agronomy and Soils, Auburn University. [Abstract]

  • Heath, M. E., D. S. Metcalfe, and R. E. Barnes. 1973. Forages: the science of grassland agriculture. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

  • Hoagland, B. 2000. The vegetation of Oklahoma: A classification for landscape mapping and conservation planning. The Southwestern Naturalist 45(4):385-420.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: J. T. Kartesz and C. A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • Lea, C., B. Waltermire, and C. Nordman. 2013. Vegetation classification and mapping, Vicksburg National Military Park, Mississippi. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/GULN/NRTR--2013/710. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Lea, C., L. A. Sneddon, and E. Eastman. 2012. Vegetation classification and mapping at Thomas Stone National Historic Site, Maryland. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2012/550. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nordman, C. 2004a. Vascular plant community classification for Stones River National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 64 pp. plus appendices and CD.

  • Nordman, C., M. Russo, and L. Smart. 2011. Vegetation types of the Natchez Trace Parkway, based on the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe Central Databases (International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications). Arlington, VA. Data current as of 11 April 2011. 548 pp.

  • Pyne, M., E. Lunsford Jones, and R. White. 2010. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Mammoth Cave National Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 334 pp.

  • Schmalzer, P. A., and H. R. DeSelm. 1982. Vegetation, endangered and threatened plants, critical plant habitats and vascular flora of the Obed Wild and Scenic River. Unpublished report. USDI National Park Service, Obed Wild and Scenic River. 2 volumes. 369 pp.

  • Schotz, A., H. Summer, and R. White, Jr. 2008. Vascular plant inventory and ecological community classification for Little River Canyon National Preserve. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 244 pp.

  • Schotz, A., M. Hall, and R. D. White, Jr. 2006. Vascular plant inventory and ecological community classification for Russell Cave National Monument. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 108 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2007/092. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 396 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2003. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 160 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2004. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Cowpens National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 126 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2005. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Fort Donelson National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 135 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D., and T. Govus. 2005. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Kings Mountain National Military Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 178 pp.

  • White, R. D., Jr. 2006. Vascular plant inventory and ecological community classification for Cumberland Gap National Historical Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 246 pp.

  • White, R. D., Jr., and M. Pyne. 2003. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Guilford Courthouse National Military Park. Prepared for the National Park Service. NatureServe, Southeast Regional Office, Durham, NC. 124 pp.

  • White, R. D., Jr., and T. Govus. 2003. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Ninety Six National Historic Site. Prepared for the National Park Service. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 146 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016