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Quercus rubra - Carya (glabra, ovata) / Ostrya virginiana / Carex lucorum Forest
Translated Name: Northern Red Oak - (Pignut Hickory, Shagbark Hickory) / Hophornbeam / Blue Ridge Sedge Forest
Common Name: Oak - Hickory / Hophornbeam / Sedge Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006301
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association is a dry, rich oak-hickory forest of the northeastern United States, occurring from Maine and Vermont to Pennsylvania and northern New Jersey. It is dominated by a mixture of hickories and oaks over a hop-hornbeam subcanopy with or without a parklike sedge lawn. The vegetation occurs on low-elevation ridgetops, upper slopes, south- or west-facing sideslopes, and is supported by well-drained loams or sandy loams, often derived from alkaline bedrock. The tree canopy, which ranges from nearly closed forest to partially open woodland, is dominated by a mixture of Carya glabra, Carya ovata, Carya ovalis, Quercus rubra, Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, with occasional Ostrya virginiana and Acer rubrum. Minor associates include Acer saccharum, Pinus strobus, and Fraxinus americana. A subcanopy of Ostrya virginiana is conspicuous in most areas. Additional species in the subcanopy or tall-shrub layer that occur in lower abundance can include Hamamelis virginiana, Cornus florida, Amelanchier arborea, Acer pensylvanicum, and Viburnum acerifolium. Low shrubs can include Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium pallidum, Rubus idaeus, or Viburnum rafinesquianum. The herb layer can range from a sedge lawn of Carex lucorum, with some Carex pensylvanica, Carex woodii, Carex appalachica, or Carex rosea, to a more patchy herbaceous layer with sedges in addition to scattered Elymus hystrix, Bromus pubescens, Ageratina altissima, Festuca subverticillata, Uvularia perfoliata, Aralia nudicaulis, Maianthemum racemosum, Desmodium glutinosum, Desmodium paniculatum, Prenanthes alba, Solidago bicolor, Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa, Carex (Laxiflorae group), Deschampsia flexuosa, Packera paupercula, Packera obovata, Symphyotrichum undulatum, Symphyotrichum patens, Polystichum acrostichoides, and Dichanthelium spp. Spring ephemerals such as Erythronium americanum and Claytonia virginica also occur in some portions of the range.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Former Carya (glabra, ovata) - Fraxinus americana - Quercus spp. Forest (CEGL006236) was lumped into this community in 2009 allowing for oak-hickory without sedge lawn stands to be included in this type (CEGL006301).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Northeastern Oak - Hickory Forest & Woodland
Alliance Northeastern Oak - Hickory Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL008515 Quercus alba - Quercus montana - Carya glabra / Cornus florida / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
CEGL008516 Quercus montana - Quercus rubra - Carya ovalis / Carex pensylvanica - (Calamagrostis porteri) Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Carya glabra - Fraxinus americana forests Equivalent   Metzler and Barrett 2006
Maine Oak - hickory forest Broader   Gawler 2002
Massachusetts Hickory - Hop Hornbeam Forest/Woodland Equivalent   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Red oak - ironwood - Pennsylvania sedge woodland Equivalent   Sperduto and Nichols 2004
New Jersey Quercus rubra - Carya (glabra, ovata) / Ostrya virginiana / Carex pensylvanica Forest Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
New Jersey Dry-mesic inland mixed oak forest Broader   Breden 1989
New York Appalachian oak-hickory forest Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Dry oak-mixed hardwood forest Broader   Fike 1999
Rhode Island Oak - Hickory Forest Broader   Enser 1999
Vermont Dry Oak-Hickory-Hophornbeam Forest Equivalent   Thompson and Sorenson 2005


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Dry Oak-Hickory-Hophornbeam Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2000. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.
Related Concept Name: SNE dry rich forest - Hickory - hop hornbeam forest variant
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: White Oak - Black Oak - Northern Red Oak: 52
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.592 Northeastern Interior Dry-Mesic Oak Forest
CES202.600 Central Appalachian Pine-Oak Rocky Woodland
CES202.602 Central Appalachian Alkaline Glade and Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (20May2011)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This association is a large-patch to matrix-forming forest association of the northeastern U.S. There are likely to be over 1000 occurrences of this vegetation, with approximately half of those having good ecological integrity. The association is ranked G4 rather than G5 because it has declined up to 30% over the long term, and continues to be threatened by residential and commercial development, invasive species, and repeated gypsy moth infestations. The impact of climate change is not currently known.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: The principal distribution of this community type is centered in Lower New England, ranging from southern New Hampshire to New Jersey and northern Pennsylvania.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: St. Lawrence and Champlain Valley Section
Section Code: 212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Green, Taconic, Berkshire Mountain Section
Section Code: M212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Adirondack Mountain Section
Section Code: M212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Catskill Mountain Section
Section Code: M212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This forest has a closed to open canopy dominated by a mixture of Carya glabra, Carya ovata, Carya ovalis, Quercus rubra, Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, with occasional Ostrya virginiana, Quercus prinus, Carya alba, and Acer rubrum. Minor associates include Acer saccharum, Pinus strobus, and Fraxinus americana. A subcanopy of Ostrya virginiana is conspicuous in most areas. Additional species in the subcanopy or tall-shrub layers that occur in lower abundance include Hamamelis virginiana, Cornus florida, Amelanchier arborea, Acer pensylvanicum, and Viburnum acerifolium. Low shrubs can include Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium pallidum, Gaylussacia baccata, Rubus allegheniensis, Rubus idaeus, Viburnum dentatum, or Viburnum rafinesquianum. Vaccinium stamineum may be present in the most southerly (NJ/PA) occurrences of this association. The herb layer can range from a sedge lawn of Carex lucorum, with some Carex pensylvanica, Carex woodii, Carex appalachica, or Carex rosea, to a more patchy herbaceous layer with sedges in addition to scattered Elymus hystrix, Bromus pubescens, Danthonia spicata, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Ageratina altissima, Festuca subverticillata, Uvularia perfoliata, Aralia nudicaulis, Maianthemum racemosum (= Smilacina racemosa), Desmodium glutinosum, Desmodium paniculatum, Prenanthes alba, Solidago bicolor, Solidago juncea, Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa (= Hepatica americana), Carex spp. (Laxiflorae group), Deschampsia flexuosa, Packera paupercula (= Senecio pauperculus), Packera obovata (= Senecio obovatus), Symphyotrichum undulatum (= Aster undulatus), Symphyotrichum patens (= Aster patens), Veronica officinalis, Polystichum acrostichoides, and Dichanthelium spp. Spring ephemerals such as Erythronium americanum and Claytonia virginica also occur in some portions of the range.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carya glabra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Quercus prinus G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Quercus rubra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Quercus velutina G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Carya ovalis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Carya ovata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus alba G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Amelanchier arborea G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Crataegus spathulata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Ostrya virginiana var. virginiana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Ageratina altissima var. altissima G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Maianthemum racemosum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Potentilla canadensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Potentilla simplex G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Solidago bicolor G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Solidago juncea G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Uvularia perfoliata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex lucorum G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Carex pensylvanica G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex rosea G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Deschampsia flexuosa G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Elymus hystrix G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This community occupies upper slopes and sideslopes at low elevations, generally with southeastern to western exposures. The low relief of southern New England limits this vegetation to small occurrences, most of which are <4 ha (10 acres). Soils are well-drained loams or sandy loams and often circumneutral. Soils are often stony, but exposed bedrock, boulders, cobbles, and mineral soil are sparse.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): E.H. Thompson and E.R. Sorenson (2000)
Element Description Edition Date: 03Apr2013
Element Description Author(s): G. Fleming, P. Coulling, S.L. Neid and S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20May2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, F. C. Sechler, E. Eastman, E. Largay, L. A. Sneddon, C. Lea, and J. Von Loh. 2014b. Vegetation inventory: Saratoga National Historical Park, New York. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NETN/NRTR--2014/869, National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Enser, R. W., and J. A. Lundgren. 2006. Natural communities of Rhode Island. A joint project of the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston. 40 pp. [www.rinhs.org]

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Lundgren, J., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the High Allegheny Plateau Ecoregion. Draft revisions to the National Vegetation Classification, March 2000 subset. Natural Heritage Central Databases. The Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA, and The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA. 71 pp. plus tables.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. 2004a. Soil survey of Saratoga County, New York. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 590 pp.

  • NYNHP [New York Natural Heritage Program]. 2009. New York Natural Heritage Conservation Guides. New York Natural Heritage Program, Albany, NY. [http://www.nynhp.org/] (accessed 2009)

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. Eastman, L. A. Sneddon, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 2 volumes.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.

  • Sechler, F. C., G. J. Edinger, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, L. A. Sneddon, C. Lea, and J. Von Loh. 2014. Vegetation classification and mapping at Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites, New York. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NETN/NRTR--2014/873, National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 392 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2000. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2005. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.


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