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Pinus taeda - Liriodendron tulipifera / Lindera benzoin / Carex crinita Ruderal Wet Forest
Translated Name: Loblolly Pine - Tuliptree / Northern Spicebush / Fringed Sedge Ruderal Wet Forest
Common Name: Ruderal Loblolly Pine - Tuliptree Wet Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007546
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This broadly defined, successional wetland forest is dominated by Pinus taeda and Liriodendron tulipifera, but many other canopy species are usually present. Lindera benzoin is a typical shrub, and Carex crinita is a typical herb. More information is needed on the detailed floristics of this association. It develops in river floodplain alluvial terraces along streams following major disturbances such as blowdowns, logging, and agriculture.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: On the Bankhead National Forest, this community was observed on previously farmed alluvial terraces along medium-sized streams. The canopy of this forest is dominated by Pinus taeda with Liriodendron tulipifera, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Nyssa sylvatica also present in the canopy. Midstory components include Nyssa sylvatica, Magnolia macrophylla, Carpinus caroliniana, and Ostrya virginiana. Shrubs include Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin, and Asimina parviflora. Jones et al. (1981a) describe an old-growth stand at the Boiling Springs Natural Area at the DOE Savannah River Plant (upper coastal plain, Barnwell County, South Carolina) as a "loblolly pine-bottomland hardwood stand" which has a "senescent upperstory" composed of Pinus taeda and Liriodendron tulipifera. In contrast, the analysis of common forest types at the Savannah River Plant by Jones et al. (1981b) and Jones and Churchill (1987) includes floodplain vegetation dominated by Pinus taeda and Liquidambar styraciflua.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southeastern North American Ruderal Flooded & Swamp Forest
Group Southeastern Native Ruderal Flooded & Swamp Forest
Alliance Southern Ruderal Pine - Sweetgum Flooded & Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL007329 Liquidambar styraciflua - Liriodendron tulipifera / Onoclea sensibilis Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Pinus taeda - Liriodendron tulipifera / Lindera benzoin / Carex crinita Successional Forest Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
South Carolina Bottomland Hardwoods Broader   Nelson 1986


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Bottomland Hardwood - Yellow Pine (46)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.
Related Concept Name: IA8c. Lowland Pine - Oak Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Loblolly Pine - Hardwood: 82
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Loblolly pine - Swamp gum - Naked withe-rod Community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Jones, S. M., D. H. Van Lear, and S. K. Cox. 1981b. Major forest community types of the Savannah River Plant: A field guide. USDE Savannah River Plant, National Environmental Research Park Program. Report No. SRO-NERP-9. 79 pp. plus 24 illustrations.
Related Concept Name: Loblolly pine-bottomland hardwood
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Jones, S. M., D. H. Van Lear, and S. K. Cox. 1981a. Composition and density-diameter pattern of an old-growth forest stand of the Boiling Springs Natural Area, South Carolina. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 108:347-353.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.323 Southern Piedmont Small Floodplain and Riparian Forest
CES202.706 South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (19Aug2002)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Reasons: This is a successional forest composed of species native to the southeastern United States; it is not of conservation concern and does not receive a conservation status rank.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, GA, MS, NC, SC, VApotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is known from the Cumberland Plateau, Piedmont, South Atlantic Coastal Plain, and Chesapeake Bay Lowlands. It is also probably found in the East Gulf Coastal Plain and Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 231C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This successional vegetation is dominated by Pinus taeda and Liriodendron tulipifera, but many other canopy species are usually present. Lindera benzoin is a typical shrub, and Carex crinita is a typical herb. More information is needed on the detailed floristics of this association. Other woody species that may be present include Liquidambar styraciflua, Platanus occidentalis, Cornus florida, Acer rubrum, Nyssa biflora, Quercus alba, Fagus grandifolia, Morus rubra, Betula nigra, Fraxinus americana, Ilex opaca, Lindera benzoin, and Asimina parviflora. Woody species common in the Piedmont portion of the range include Aesculus sylvatica and Acer negundo. Herbaceous and woody vine species that may occur include Carex crinita, Botrychium virginianum, Eupatorium purpureum, Polystichum acrostichoides, Arundinaria gigantea, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans, Asplenium platyneuron, Woodwardia areolata, Osmunda cinnamomea, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Dulichium arundinaceum, Carex albolutescens, Hypericum nudiflorum, Corydalis flavula, and others. The exotics Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera japonica commonly occur in this community. The preceding information is from the related alliance description (Weakley et al. 1998), and these floristics were included in a 1995 CCA for the "Pinus taeda - Liriodendron tulipifera / Lindera benzoin / Carex crinita Successional Forest" (1C03B020.01F), on which this association is apparently based. It is not clear where these data originated. Some of the taxa mentioned (e.g., Eupatorium purpureum) seem "suspicious" and out of place.

Apparently related vegetation from the Savannah River Site cited in Jones et al. (1981b) indicates dominance of some stands by Pinus taeda, Nyssa biflora, and Liriodendron tulipifera in the canopy, with Persea palustris, Magnolia virginiana, Acer rubrum, and Nyssa biflora in the subcanopy. Other species present include Vaccinium formosum, Viburnum nudum, Arundinaria gigantea, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans, Mitchella repens, Osmunda cinnamomea, and Onoclea sensibilis.


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Liquidambar styraciflua GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Liriodendron tulipifera GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Platanus occidentalis GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus taeda GNA Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Cornus florida GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Ilex opaca GNA Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Diervilla rivularis GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Ligustrum sinense GNA Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Lonicera japonica GNA Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans GNA Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Lindera benzoin GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Asimina parviflora GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Coreopsis pulchra GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Eupatorium purpureum GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Marshallia trinervia GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rudbeckia heliopsidis GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Botrychium virginianum GNA Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Polystichum acrostichoides GNA Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Arundinaria gigantea GNA Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex crinita GNA Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Lonicera japonica GNA Liana Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Coreopsis pulchra
  (Woodland Tickseed)
G2  
Diervilla rivularis
  (Mountain Bush-honeysuckle)
G3  
Marshallia trinervia
  (Broadleaf Barbara's-buttons)
G3  
Rudbeckia heliopsidis
  (Sun-facing Coneflower)
G2  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This broadly defined, successional wetland forest develops in river floodplain alluvial terraces along streams following major disturbances such as blowdowns, logging, and agriculture. This is primarily a Zone IV community with a likelihood of 51-100% of flooding with intermittent periodicity for 1-2 months (12.5-25% of total) of the growing season. Flooding usually occurs in the spring. Just as important as flooding regime in determining the species composition of this community is land-use history since this community most often develops on floodplains subjected to timbering practices.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This is primarily a Zone IV community with a likelihood of 51-100% of flooding with intermittent periodicity for 1-2 months (12.5-25% of total) of the growing season. Flooding usually occurs in the spring.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): S. Landaal
Element Description Edition Date: 31Jan1995
Element Description Author(s): S. Landaal
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Aug2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Gallyoun, M., G. Meyer, A. Andreu, and W. Slocumb. 1996. Mapping vegetation communities with The Nature Conservancy's vegetation classification system on five small national parks in the southeastern USA. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Conservation Science Department, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • Jones, S. M., D. H. Van Lear, and S. K. Cox. 1981a. Composition and density-diameter pattern of an old-growth forest stand of the Boiling Springs Natural Area, South Carolina. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 108:347-353.

  • Jones, S. M., D. H. Van Lear, and S. K. Cox. 1981b. Major forest community types of the Savannah River Plant: A field guide. USDE Savannah River Plant, National Environmental Research Park Program. Report No. SRO-NERP-9. 79 pp. plus 24 illustrations.

  • Jones, S. M., and L. A. Churchill. 1987. The use of vegetation in assessing site potential within the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Castanea 52:1-8.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schotz, A., H. Summer, and R. White, Jr. 2008. Vascular plant inventory and ecological community classification for Little River Canyon National Preserve. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 244 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.

  • Weakley, A. S., K. D. Patterson, S. Landaal, M. Pyne, and others, compilers. 1998. International classification of ecological communities: Terrestrial vegetation of the Southeastern United States. Working draft of March 1998. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Southern Conservation Science Department, Community Ecology Group. Chapel Hill, NC. 689 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D., and T. Govus. 2005. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Kings Mountain National Military Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 178 pp.


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