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Pinus taeda - Liquidambar styraciflua - Nyssa biflora Ruderal Floodplain Forest
Translated Name: Loblolly Pine - Sweetgum - Swamp Tupelo Ruderal Floodplain Forest
Common Name: Ruderal Loblolly Pine - Sweetgum - Swamp Tupelo Floodplain Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL004606
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association includes forests dominated by the nominal species on slightly elevated ridges of floodplains primarily in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the adjacent East Gulf Coastal Plain. The canopy of this successional forest is typically dominated by some combination of Pinus taeda, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Nyssa biflora. A mixture of other bottomland hardwood species may be present which includes Diospyros virginiana, Quercus nigra, Acer rubrum, Quercus michauxii, Quercus laurifolia, Ulmus alata, Carya cordiformis, Ulmus americana, Quercus pagoda, Celtis laevigata, Quercus phellos, Fagus grandifolia, Carya alba, and others. Asimina triloba may be prominent in the understory with Ilex decidua, Carpinus caroliniana, Crataegus viridis, Crataegus spathulata, Ilex opaca, and other species. These forests develop following disturbance and may persist.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: Pederson et al. (1997) report old stands at Congaree Swamp National Monument dominated by Pinus taeda, Liquidambar styraciflua, Carpinus caroliniana, and Ilex opaca. This vegetation is apparently accommodated in the USNVC as a Pinus taeda-containing "phase" of Liquidambar styraciflua - Quercus laurifolia - (Pinus taeda) / Arundinaria gigantea / Carex abscondita Floodplain Forest (CEGL007732).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southeastern North American Ruderal Flooded & Swamp Forest
Group Southeastern Native Ruderal Flooded & Swamp Forest
Alliance Southern Ruderal Pine - Sweetgum Flooded & Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL007329 Liquidambar styraciflua - Liriodendron tulipifera / Onoclea sensibilis Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Loblolly pine-sweet gum-red bay
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Jones, S. M., D. H. Van Lear, and S. K. Cox. 1981b. Major forest community types of the Savannah River Plant: A field guide. USDE Savannah River Plant, National Environmental Research Park Program. Report No. SRO-NERP-9. 79 pp. plus 24 illustrations.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.066 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.559 East Gulf Coastal Plain Small Stream and River Floodplain Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (02Feb2016)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Reasons: These forests develop following disturbance and may persist. This is not an inherently rare forest type and is widely distributed. Older or higher quality examples could be significant to conservation, particularly if they are interspersed with, and serve as buffer for, rarer types. Grank changed from G3G5 to G4 2000-11-22.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: FLpotentially occurs, GA, LApotentially occurs, MSpotentially occurs, NC, SC, VApotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: These forests are primarily found in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the adjacent East Gulf Coastal Plain of the United States.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy is dominated by some combination of Pinus taeda, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Nyssa biflora. A mixture of other bottomland hardwood species may be present which includes Diospyros virginiana, Quercus nigra, Acer rubrum, Quercus michauxii, Quercus laurifolia, Ulmus alata, Carya cordiformis, Ulmus americana, Quercus pagoda, Celtis laevigata, Quercus phellos, Fagus grandifolia, Carya alba, and others. Asimina triloba may be prominent in the understory with Ilex decidua, Carpinus caroliniana, Crataegus viridis, Crataegus spathulata, Ilex opaca, Arundinaria gigantea, and other species. Vines such as Vitis rotundifolia, Vitis aestivalis, Smilax spp., Cocculus carolinus, and Berchemia scandens may be important, and the herbaceous layer likely includes Boehmeria cylindrica, Carex spp., and scattered ferns such as Onoclea sensibilis. At Ocmulgee National Monument near Macon, Georgia, invasive exotic Ligustrum sinense can dominate the shrub layer.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Liquidambar styraciflua GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Nyssa biflora GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus taeda GNA Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Ligustrum sinense GNA Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These are forests dominated by the nominal species on slightly elevated ridges of floodplains primarily in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, ranging into the adjacent East Gulf Coastal Plain.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: These forests develop following disturbance and may persist.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): S. Landaal
Element Description Edition Date: 17Feb2009
Element Description Author(s): S. Landaal and L. Kruse
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Dec2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Jones, S. M., D. H. Van Lear, and S. K. Cox. 1981b. Major forest community types of the Savannah River Plant: A field guide. USDE Savannah River Plant, National Environmental Research Park Program. Report No. SRO-NERP-9. 79 pp. plus 24 illustrations.

  • Jones, S. M., and L. A. Churchill. 1987. The use of vegetation in assessing site potential within the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Castanea 52:1-8.

  • McCrain, G. R., and B. H. Church. 1985. An analysis of past and present plant community patterns in Moores Creek National Battlefield along with associated impacts affecting distribution and restoration. Prepared by Resource Management Co., Raleigh, NC, under Purchase Order Number PX-5550-3-0062 for the USDI, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office, Atlanta, GA.

  • McManamay, R. H., A. Curtis, and M. W. Byrne. 2012. Vegetation mapping at Moores Creek National Battlefield. Natural Resource Data Series NPS/SECN/NRDS--2012/319. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 173 pp.

  • Pederson, N. A., R. H. Jones, and R. R. Sharitz. 1997. Age structure and possible origins of old Pinus taeda stands in a floodplain forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 124(2):111-123.

  • Pederson, N., and R. H. Jones. 1994. Disturbance history and establishment of loblolly pine in the Congaree Swamp. Unpublished report. USDI National Park Service, Congaree Swamp National Monument. 42 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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