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Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa / Salix exigua Riparian Forest
Translated Name: Black Cottonwood / Narrowleaf Willow Riparian Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL000676
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association occurs on alluvial deposits along rivers and perennial streams of the Intermountain West in habitats which are seasonally flooded and saturated. It generally occurs in wider river valleys or terraces, with Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa dominating forest or woodland patches while Salix exigua dominates a continuous shrub canopy, <7 m in height. Few examples of this type occur in pristine condition, so most commonly Poa pratensis, Bromus tectorum, and Verbascum thapsus are widespread in this community. In a few remnants, the open understory can have Artemisia ludoviciana and Leymus cinereus along with some native forbs.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: Sawyer and Keeler-Wolf (1995) define the "narrowleaf willow series" which may have Salix exigua (= Salix hindsiana) or Salix sessilifolia as a dominant. The classification of this type is limited by the highly degraded nature of most intermountain streams. Both species dominants are fairly wide ranging, but they occur together only in low-gradient, low-elevation streams and rivers.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nc - Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Montane Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Montane Riparian & Swamp Forest
Group Northern Rocky Mountain Lowland-Foothill Riparian Forest
Alliance Northern Rocky Mountain Riparian Black Cottonwood Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003431 Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa / Salix lucida ssp. caudata Riparian Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa / Salix exigua Forest Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Oregon Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa / Salix exigua Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa / Salix exigua Temporarily Flooded Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crawford, R. C. 2003. Riparian vegetation classification of the Columbia Basin, Washington. Natural Heritage Report 2003-03. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Washington Department of Natural Resources, Olympia. 98 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: narrowleaf willow series
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Sawyer, J. O., and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 471 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES304.768 Columbia Basin Foothill Riparian Woodland and Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (29Mar1999)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: While very little is known about the abundance and distribution of this association, it is clear that it is very rare and very threatened. Few examples occupying very limited acreage exist in good condition. Degraded examples are not uncommon. Conversion, grazing, hydro projects, and diversions are all active threats. The community requires regular flooding on streams and rivers. In the Intermountain West, streams generally either have dams, diversions or both, which decrease the intensity and frequency of floods. This community is particularly susceptible to conversion and change in flood regime.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CApotentially occurs, IDpotentially occurs, NVpotentially occurs, OR, WA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: Found at low elevations on large streams and rivers in the Intermountain West.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Basin and Range Section
Section Code: 342B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Owyhee Uplands Section
Section Code: 342C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: High Lava Plains Section
Section Code: 342H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Columbia Basin Section
Section Code: 342I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Mountains Section
Section Code: M332G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa dominates forest or woodland patches while Salix exigua dominates a continuous shrub canopy, <7 m in height. Few examples of this type occur in pristine condition, so most commonly Poa pratensis, Bromus tectorum, and Verbascum thapsus are widespread in this community. In a few remnants, the open understory can have Artemisia ludoviciana and Leymus cinereus along with some native forbs.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Salix exigua G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Verbascum thapsus G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Bromus tectorum G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Poa pratensis G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association occurs on alluvial deposits along rivers and perennial streams in habitats which are seasonally flooded and saturated. It generally occurs in wider river valleys or terraces.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): J.S. Kagan
Element Description Edition Date: 26Nov1997
Element Description Author(s): J.S. Kagan
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23Mar1999
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J.S. Kagan

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Crawford, R. C. 2003. Riparian vegetation classification of the Columbia Basin, Washington. Natural Heritage Report 2003-03. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Washington Department of Natural Resources, Olympia. 98 pp. plus appendices.

  • Erixson, J. A., D. Cogan, and J. Von Loh. 2011a. Vegetation inventory project: John Day Fossil Beds National Monument. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/UCBN/NRTR--2011/419. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 184 pp. [http://www.usgs.gov/core_science_systems/csas/vip/parks/joda.html]

  • Erixson, J., D. Cogan, and J. Von Loh. 2011b. Vegetation inventory project report: Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area. Natural Resource Report NPS/UCBN/NRR--2011/434 National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Manning, M. E., and W. G. Padgett. 1992. Riparian community type classification for the Humboldt and Toiyabe national forests, Nevada and eastern California. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region Ecology and Classification Program. 274 pp.

  • Manning, M. E., and W. G. Padgett. 1995. Riparian community type classification for Humboldt and Toiyabe national forests, Nevada and eastern California. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 306 pp.

  • Peterson, E. B. 2008. International Vegetation Classification alliances and associations occurring in Nevada with proposed additions. Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Carson City, NV. 348 pp.

  • Poulton, C. E. 1955. Ecology of the non-forested vegetation in Umatilla and Morrow counties, Oregon. Unpublished dissertation. State College of Washington, Pullman. 166 pp.

  • Sawyer, J. O., and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 471 pp.

  • Titus, J. H., M. Kerr, E. Crowe, and B. Kovalchik. 1998. Riparian zones of eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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