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Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana / Viburnum nudum var. nudum / Osmunda cinnamomea Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Red Maple - Blackgum - Sweetbay / Possumhaw / Cinnamon Fern Swamp Forest
Common Name: Southern Red Maple - Blackgum Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006238
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This acidic swamp forest of the eastern middle-latitude states is a nutrient-poor wetland forest occurring in groundwater-saturated stream bottoms and poorly drained depressions. Soils are typically moderately deep to deep muck over mineral soil, with pools of standing water at the surface. Acidic waters originate from groundwater seepage, with little to no overland seasonal flooding. Most sites can be characterized as "groundwater slope wetlands" (sensu Golet et al. 1993) with a flow-through hydrology. This community is characterized by Acer rubrum and Nyssa sylvatica in the canopy, which may be quite open in some examples. Canopy associates include Magnolia virginiana, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Persea palustris, plus occasional incidental Liriodendron tulipifera or Pinus taeda. Upland trees may occur on drier hummocks. The shrub layer is characterized by Vaccinium corymbosum, as well as Clethra alnifolia, Ilex verticillata, Ilex opaca, Viburnum nudum var. nudum, Lindera benzoin, and Rhododendron viscosum. The herbaceous layer varies from dense to sparse and may include Symplocarpus foetidus, Triadenum virginicum, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Woodwardia areolata, Carex folliculata, Carex lonchocarpa, Carex collinsii, Carex atlantica, Bartonia paniculata, Parnassia asarifolia, Helonias bullata, Chelone glabra, Oxypolis rigidior, and Osmunda cinnamomea. Sphagnum spp. and other mosses are common.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Laurentian-Acadian-North Atlantic Coastal Flooded & Swamp Forest
Group Laurentian-Acadian-Appalachian Acidic Swamp
Alliance Red Maple - Blackgum Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004426 Acer rubrum var. trilobum / Viburnum nudum var. nudum / Osmunda cinnamomea - Saururus cernuus - Impatiens capensis Seep Forest
CEGL006014 Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Betula alleghaniensis / Sphagnum spp. Swamp Forest
CEGL006137 Pinus taeda / Morella cerifera / Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis Swamp Forest
CEGL007853 Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica / Ilex verticillata - Vaccinium fuscatum / Osmunda cinnamomea Seep Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Southern Red Maple-Blackgum Swamp Forest Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maryland Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana Forest Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
New Jersey Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana Forest Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
Pennsylvania Red Maple - Magnolia Palustrine Forest Equivalent   Fike 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Liquidambar styraciflua - Nyssa sylvatica Swamp Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana / Viburnum nudum / Osmunda cinnamomea - Woodwardia areolata Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana / Viburnum nudum var. nudum / Osmunda cinnamomea - Woodwardia areolata Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana / Viburnum nudum var. nudum / Osmunda cinnamomea - Woodwardia areolata Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica / Magnolia virginiana / Woodwardia areolata - Symplocarpus foetidus Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica / Magnolia virginiana / Woodwardia areolata - Symplocarpus foetidus Saturated Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Patterson, Karen D. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Quercus nigra - Nyssa sylvatica swamp
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Harvill, A. M., Jr. 1967. The vegetation of Assateague Island, Virginia. Castanea 32:105-108.
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum / Magnolia virginiana / Symplocarpus foetidus - Osmunda cinnamomea Saturated Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McCoy, K. M., and G. P. Fleming. 2000. Ecological communities of U.S. Army Garrison, Fort Belvoir, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Army. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 156 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Broadleaf swamp forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Heckscher, S. 1994. The vegetation of the Glades Region, Cumberland County, New Jersey. Bartonia 58:101-113.
Related Concept Name: Cape May lowland swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.
Related Concept Name: Coastal Plain - Piedmont Acidic Seepage Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Coastal Plain / Piedmont Acidic Seepage Swamp
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Inland red maple swamp
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pine barrens hardwood swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.
Related Concept Name: Red Maple - Black Gum - Holly Swamp (AN3)
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Windisch, A .G. 2014a. Pinelands ecological communities and higher level groups with crosswalk / proposed 2008 revisions to NVC. November 16, 2014 draft. New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Trenton.
Related Concept Name: Red Maple - Magnolia Coastal Plain Palustrine Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
Related Concept Name: Woodland fresh marsh community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.298 Piedmont Seepage Wetland
CES203.070 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Riparian and Floodplain
CES203.374 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Pitch Pine Lowland
CES203.522 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Basin Peat Swamp


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3? (30Mar2004)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: The type is restricted to an uncommon wetland habitat in a limited region. It is vulnerable to alteration or destruction by beavers and various anthropogenic activities, including hydrologic modifications.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DC, DE, MD, NJ, PA, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community ranges from southeastern New York and New Jersey to southeastern Virginia on the Coastal Plain. In Virginia, it extends into the extreme eastern portion of the Piedmont.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Canopy closure ranges from closed to quite open. Plot data from 38 Virginia and Maryland stands indicate that Acer rubrum and Nyssa sylvatica are consistently dominant overstory species. Liriodendron tulipifera is a frequent but minor overstory associate, and Pinus taeda or Liquidambar styraciflua is occasional in the canopy. Magnolia virginiana is a frequent overstory associate and usually dominant in a subcanopy layer or codominant with Ilex opaca. Trees tend to be slow-growing and of less than optimal stature in the wet, unstable habitats. Shrub layers tend to be dense and diverse, characteristically containing Viburnum nudum var. nudum, Vaccinium corymbosum, Smilax rotundifolia, Ilex verticillata, and Lindera benzoin. In parts of the range, Clethra alnifolia is a dominant shrub, while in New Jersey, Chamaedaphne calyculata and Gaylussacia frondosa are present. Additional, less constant shrub associates are Rhododendron viscosum, Leucothoe racemosa, Chionanthus virginicus, Viburnum dentatum, Toxicodendron vernix, and Carpinus caroliniana. The herb layer varies from dense to sparse. Osmunda cinnamomea and Woodwardia areolata are generally the most constant and abundant herbs, but Symplocarpus foetidus is a patch-dominant in approximately two-thirds of the Virginia and Maryland stands. Additional characteristic herbs occurring at low cover include Arisaema triphyllum ssp. pusillum, Carex atlantica, Carex debilis var. debilis, Carex folliculata, Carex intumescens, Carex lonchocarpa, Carex seorsa, Carex styloflexa, Chelone glabra, Impatiens capensis, Lycopus virginicus, Mitchella repens, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Platanthera clavellata, Viola cucullata, and Viola x primulifolia. Regionally uncommon or rare species that may be locally abundant in this type include Helonias bullata, Parnassia asarifolia, Carex collinsii, and Bartonia paniculata.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Liquidambar styraciflua G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Nyssa sylvatica G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Magnolia virginiana G3 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Clethra alnifolia G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Vaccinium corymbosum G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Helonias bullata G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Osmunda cinnamomea G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 
Osmunda regalis G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Woodwardia areolata G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Helonias bullata
  (Swamp-pink)
G3 LT: Listed threatened


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association is generally restricted to groundwater-saturated stream bottoms, seeping toeslopes, and poorly drained depressions with seepage inputs. Most sites can be characterized as "groundwater slope wetlands" (sensu Golet et al. 1993) with a flow-through hydrology. Sites typically have hummock-and-hollow microtopography with braided channels, Sphagnum-covered hummocks, mucky depressions, and areas of exposed sand and gravel. Soils are extremely acidic and low in base status.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Trees tend to be slow-growing and of less than optimal stature in the wet, unstable habitats. Additionally, these swamps tend to border dry, sandy uplands supporting fire-prone oak/heath forests. Occasional fires, burning into the swamps from the uplands during dry periods, may have once influenced the composition and physiognomy of this type. However, fire has now been excluded from almost all areas within the range. An exception is at Fort A.P. Hill Military Reservation, where military training results in frequent incendiary fires in a roughly 5000-ha area. Stands of this community are very susceptible to flooding from beaver activities, which usually results in the destruction or extreme alteration of a stand. In New Jersey, this community is often situated adjacent to Chamaecyparis thyoides-dominated swamp and may replace it after logging.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Fleming et al. (2006)
Element Description Edition Date: 16Feb2007
Element Description Author(s): G. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Mar2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Ehrenfeld, J. G., and M. Gulick. 1981. Structure and dynamics of hardwood swamps in the New Jersey Pine Barrens: Contrasting patterns in trees and shrubs. American Journal of Botany 68:471-481.

  • Eichelberger, B. 2011o. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Red Maple - Magnolia Palustrine Forest Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=16024] (accessed February 15, 2012)

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • Golet, F. C., A. J. K. Calhoun, W. R. DeRagon, D. J. Lowry, and A. J. Gold. 1993. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated Northeast: A community profile. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 151 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., and P. Stango, III. 2003. Shrubland tidal wetland communities of Maryland's Eastern Shore: Identification, assessment and monitoring. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 118 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Harvill, A. M., Jr. 1967. The vegetation of Assateague Island, Virginia. Castanea 32:105-108.

  • Heckscher, S. 1994. The vegetation of the Glades Region, Cumberland County, New Jersey. Bartonia 58:101-113.

  • Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.

  • Lea, C., L. A. Sneddon, and E. Eastman. 2012. Vegetation classification and mapping at Thomas Stone National Historic Site, Maryland. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2012/550. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • McCormick, J. 1979. The vegetation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. In: R. T. T. Formann, editor. Pine Barrens: Ecosystem and landscape. Academic Press, New York.

  • McCoy, K. M., and G. P. Fleming. 2000. Ecological communities of U.S. Army Garrison, Fort Belvoir, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Army. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 156 pp. plus appendices.

  • NatureServe. 2009. Vegetation of the E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge. International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, VA. U.S.A. Data current as of 1 December 2009.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008d. Vegetation classification and mapping at George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/099. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 231 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008e. Vegetation classification and mapping at Petersburg National Battlefield, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/127. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 235 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008f. Vegetation classification and mapping at Richmond National Battlefield Park, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/128. National Park Service. Philadelphia, PA. 244 pp.

  • Patterson, Karen D. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • Robichaud, B., and M. F. Buell. 1973. Vegetation of New Jersey. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ. 340 pp.

  • Sipple, W. S., and W. A. Klockner. 1984. Uncommon wetlands in Coastal Plain of Maryland. Pages 111-137 in: A. W. Norden, et al., editors. Threatened and endangered plants and animals of Maryland. Special Publication 84-I. Maryland Natural Heritage Program.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1995c. NBS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Vegetation classification of Assateague Island National Seashore. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.

  • Taverna, K. and K. D. Patterson. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping at Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2008/126. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 277 pp.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.

  • Windisch, A .G. 2014a. Pinelands ecological communities and higher level groups with crosswalk / proposed 2008 revisions to NVC. November 16, 2014 draft. New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Trenton.

  • Windisch, A. G. 1995b. Natural community inventory of Fort Dix, New Jersey. The Nature Conservancy report. New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management. Trenton, NJ. 81 pp.

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]


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