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Quercus rubra / Magnolia tripetala - Cercis canadensis / Actaea racemosa - Tiarella cordifolia Forest
Translated Name: Northern Red Oak / Umbrella-tree - Eastern Redbud / Black Baneberry - Heartleaf Foamflower Forest
Common Name: Piedmont Mesic Basic Red Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL003949
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This basic mesic forest of the southern Piedmont is a more mesic variation of Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya (ovata, carolinae-septentrionalis) / Cercis canadensis Forest (CEGL007232). It occurs on circumneutral to basic, well-drained soils in the Piedmont of South Carolina and possibly also occurs in Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. Proportions of Liriodendron tulipifera and other early-successional species increase following disturbance. The canopy is dominated by Quercus rubra and often Liriodendron tulipifera in combination with small amounts of Quercus alba and Fagus grandifolia. This community exists in ravine areas and is best developed on the north-oriented faces of these ravines. The subcanopy is dominated by Magnolia tripetala, and the herb layer is diverse and moderate in cover with species such as Actaea racemosa, Polystichum acrostichoides, Tiarella cordifolia, and Circaea lutetiana. In addition, indicators of rich, somewhat basic soil, usually associated with the coves of the southern Appalachians 60 miles to the west, are present. These include species such as Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Collinsonia canadensis, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Oxalis violacea, Adiantum pedatum, Cercis canadensis, Luzula spp., and Corylus sp. As with CEGL007232, this community is differentiated from non-basic oak-hickory forests by lacking such species as Quercus falcata, Quercus coccinea, and Oxydendrum arboreum.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: This association is differentiated from non-basic oak-hickory forests by lacking such species as Quercus falcata and Oxydendrum arboreum. This community was created in response to the need for the description of a more mesic variant of Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya (ovata, carolinae-septentrionalis) / Cercis canadensis Forest (CEGL007232) in the Piedmont. This forest is not in Kentucky or Tennessee.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Interior-Northeastern Mesic Forest
Group Appalachian-Central Interior Mesic Forest
Alliance Piedmont-Ridge and Valley Beech - Red Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL007232 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya (ovata, carolinae-septentrionalis) / Cercis canadensis Forest
CEGL007237 Quercus rubra - Quercus alba - Carya glabra / Geranium maculatum Forest
CEGL007795 Quercus alba - Carya alba - (Quercus velutina) / Desmodium nudiflorum - (Carex picta) Forest
CEGL008475 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya alba / Vaccinium stamineum / Desmodium nudiflorum Piedmont Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
South Carolina Basic Forest Broader   Nelson 1986


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Basic Oak--Hickory Forest, Mafic Substrate Variant
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.342 Southern Piedmont Mesic Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3? (31Jan2007)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This community type is limited to areas of dissected topography with base rich soils in parts of the Piedmont. Only one occurrence has been documented (Kings Mountain, SC), although this type could potentially occur in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. However, any other potential occurrences are most likely very small, very widely dispersed, and not currently protected. Logging that damages the soil structure or alters the species composition of existing stands, any land use practice upslope that increases erosion, and invasion of certain invasive exotics are all potentially important threats that may occur on these small patches in the near future. The G3 rank appears to be justified given the known rarity of base rich soils in the Piedmont and the fact that only one occurrence has been documented as of February 2004. However, this type could potentially occur in other states in the Piedmont which have not been surveyed for this type yet. The ? on the rank indicates a degree of uncertainty on the rank based on the potential for this type to be found in some of these areas.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ALpotentially occurs, GApotentially occurs, NCpotentially occurs, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: The community has been described for Kings Mountain National Military Park, but most likely occurs in other areas of the Piedmont of South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia where the appropriate soils and topography exist.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this forest are dominated by Quercus rubra and often Liriodendron tulipifera in combination with small amounts of Quercus alba and Fagus grandifolia. The subcanopy is dominated by Magnolia tripetala, and the herb layer is diverse and moderate in cover with species such as Actaea racemosa, Polystichum acrostichoides, Tiarella cordifolia, and Circaea lutetiana. Proportions of Liriodendron tulipifera and other early successional species increase following disturbance. As with CEGL007232, this community is differentiated from non-basic oak-hickory forests by lacking such species as Quercus falcata and Oxydendrum arboreum.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This basic mesic forest of the southern Piedmont is a more mesic variation of Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya (ovata, carolinae-septentrionalis) / Cercis canadensis Forest (CEGL007232). A basic or mafic substrate is necessary for best development of this community. It commonly occurs on mesic north-oriented low slopes and bottoms.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This community is most likely not a fire-adapted type. Natural tree replacement occurs on a tree-by-tree basis. This community does not appear to be changing significantly over time, though we could expect Acer rubrum and other shade-tolerant species to populate the understory in the absence of catastrophic disturbance.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): R. White
Element Description Edition Date: 31Jan2003
Element Description Author(s): R. White
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Feb2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): R. White

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Rawinski, T. J. 1992. A classification of Virginia's indigenous biotic communities: Vegetated terrestrial, palustrine, and estuarine community classes. Unpublished document. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report No. 92-21. Richmond, VA. 25 pp.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • White, Jr., R. D., and T. Govus. 2005. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Kings Mountain National Military Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 178 pp.


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