NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Dasiphora fruticosa / Deschampsia cespitosa Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Shrubby-cinquefoil / Tufted Hairgrass Wet Shrubland
Common Name: Shrubby-cinquefoil / Tufted Hairgrass Wet Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL001107
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This montane to subalpine shrubland association is widespread in the Rocky Mountains west to eastern Oregon and Utah on stream terraces above the channel, on drier edges of wetlands, on broad gently sloping valley bottoms and floodplains, on moderately steep mesic slopes near springs, and near glacial depressions. Elevation ranges from 2500-3300 m (8300-10,700 feet) in Colorado to 860-2267 m (2820-7400 feet) in Montana. Aspect is variable. Soils are typically derived from alluvium and are deep, fine-textured, but vary from sandy loam to clay loam. Gleying and mottling are common. Sites have a high water table that fluctuates (40-100 cm) seasonally. These riparian shrublands form an open to moderately dense, low-shrub layer dominated by Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda with thick cover of bunchgrasses. Other shrub species may include low cover of Artemisia cana, Betula glandulosa, Salix boothii, and Salix planifolia. The lush herbaceous layer is often typically diverse and usually dominated by the graminoid Deschampsia cespitosa, which is consistently present as a diagnostic species at least in trace amounts. Other characteristic graminoids may include Carex aurea, Carex aquatilis, Carex heteroneura var. chalciolepis, Carex nova, Carex pellita, Carex microptera, Danthonia intermedia, Elymus trachycaulus, Festuca rubra, Festuca saximontana, Festuca brachyphylla, Phleum alpinum, Poa secunda, and Trisetum spicatum. Numerous forb species may be present such as Antennaria spp., Argentina anserina, Polygonum bistortoides, Caltha leptosepala, Cerastium arvense, Geum rossii, Penstemon procerus, Potentilla spp., Selaginella spp., Solidago simplex, Symphyotrichum spp., Stellaria longipes, Thalictrum spp., Trifolium longipes, and Valeriana edulis. With heavy grazing Achillea millefolium, Antennaria spp., Carex nebrascensis, Fragaria virginiana, Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis, and Potentilla gracilis increase in cover. Exotic graminoids Poa pratensis and Alopecurus pratensis and forbs Taraxacum officinale and Trifolium repens may be common in heavily grazed/disturbed stands.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda and Deschampsia cespitosa are both widespread mesic species that occur in a variety of mesic habitats. Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda shrublands and steppe are highly variable and need more survey and classification work to clarify diagnostic characteristics.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Western North American Montane Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Western Montane-Subalpine Riparian & Seep Shrubland
Alliance Western Non-willow Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL001106 Dasiphora fruticosa / Carex spp. Wet Shrubland
CEGL001502 Dasiphora fruticosa / Festuca idahoensis Shrub Grassland
CEGL001503 Dasiphora fruticosa / Festuca campestris Shrub Grassland
CEGL003499 Dasiphora fruticosa Subalpine Wet Shrubland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Colorado Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda / Deschampsia cespitosa Wet Shrubland Equivalent Certain CNHP 2017
Idaho Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda / Deschampia cespitosa Shrubland Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Montana Dasiphora fruticosa / Deschampsia cespitosa Shrubland Equivalent Certain MTNHP 2002
Oregon Potentilla fruticosa / Deschampsia cespitosa Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004
Wyoming Pentaphylloides floribunda / Deschampsia cespitosa Shrubland Equivalent Certain WNDD unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Dasiphora (=Pentaphylloides) floribunda / Deschampsia caespitosa Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Dasiphora floribunda / Deschampsia cespitosa Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., D. Cooper, K. Decker, D. Culver, and G. Kittel. 2003b. Statewide wetlands classification and characterization: Wetland plant associations of Colorado. Prepared for Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Denver, by Colorado Natural Heritage Program, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 79 pp. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/documents/2003/wetland_classification_final_report_2003.pdf]
Related Concept Name: Pentaphylloides floribunda / Deschampsia cespitosa Plant Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Johnston, B. C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. R2-ECOL-87-2. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Lakewood, CO. 429 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pentaphylloides floribunda/Deschampsia cespitosa
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Potentilla fruticosa / Deschampsia cespitosa
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.
Related Concept Name: Potentilla fruticosa / Deschampsia cespitosa Community Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985a. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 78 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985b. Riparian community type classification of northern Utah and adjacent Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 104 pp.
Related Concept Name: Potentilla fruticosa / Deschampsia cespitosa Habitat Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hall, J. B., and P. L. Hansen. 1997. A preliminary riparian habitat type classification system for the Bureau of Land Management districts in southern and eastern Idaho. Riparian and Wetland Research Program, School of Forestry, University of Montana. Idaho Bureau of Land Management, Technical Bulletin No. 97-11. 381 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.
Related Concept Name: Shrubby cinquefoil/tufted hairgrass (Pentaphylloides floribunda/Deschampsia cespitosa) Plant Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, and J. Sanderson. 1999a. A classification of the riparian plant associations of the Rio Grande and Closed Basin watersheds, Colorado. Unpublished report prepared by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, and M. Damm. 1997a. A classification of the riparian vegetation of the South Platte Basin (and part of Republican River Basin), Colorado. Submitted to Colorado Department of Natural Resources and the Environmental Protection Agency, Region VIII. Prepared by Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES306.812 Rocky Mountain Alpine-Montane Wet Meadow
CES306.832 Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Riparian Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (01Feb1996)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CO, ID, MT, OR, UT, WY
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This montane riparian shrubland association is widespread in the Rocky Mountain region from Colorado to Montana west into Oregon and Utah.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Snake River Basalts Section
Section Code: 342D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Yellowstone Highlands Section
Section Code: M331A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Overthrust Mountains Section
Section Code: M331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: South-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Parks and Ranges Section
Section Code: M331I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Valley Section
Section Code: M332B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Rocky Mountain Front Section
Section Code: M332C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Belt Mountains Section
Section Code: M332D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Beaverhead Mountains Section
Section Code: M332E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Challis Volcanics Section
Section Code: M332F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Northern Rocky Mountain Forest - Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M333 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Flathead Valley Section
Section Code: M333B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Rockies Section
Section Code: M333C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Mountains Section
Section Code: M333D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Regime Mountains
Province Name: Nevada-Utah Mountains Semi-Desert - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M341 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Utah High Plateaus and Mountains Section
Section Code: M341C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: These riparian shrublands form an open to moderately dense, low-shrub layer dominated by Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda (= Pentaphylloides floribunda) with thick cover of bunchgrasses. Other shrub species may include low cover of Artemisia cana, Betula glandulosa, Salix boothii, and Salix planifolia. The lush herbaceous layer is often typically diverse and usually dominated by the graminoid Deschampsia cespitosa, which is consistently present as a diagnostic species in at least trace amounts. Other characteristic graminoids may include Carex aurea, Carex aquatilis, Carex heteroneura var. chalciolepis, Carex nova, Carex pellita (= Carex lanuginosa), Carex microptera, Danthonia intermedia, Elymus trachycaulus, Festuca rubra, Festuca saximontana, Festuca brachyphylla, Phleum alpinum, Poa secunda, and Trisetum spicatum. Numerous forb species may be present such as Antennaria spp., Argentina anserina, Polygonum bistortoides, Caltha leptosepala, Cerastium arvense, Geum rossii, Penstemon procerus, Potentilla diversifolia, Potentilla gracilis, Potentilla hippiana, Pseudocymopterus montanus, Rhodiola rhodantha, Selaginella spp., Solidago simplex var. simplex, Symphyotrichum campestre, Stellaria longipes, Thalictrum alpinum, Noccaea fendleri ssp. glauca (= Thlaspi montanum), Trifolium longipes, and Valeriana edulis. With heavy grazing Achillea millefolium, Antennaria spp., Carex nebrascensis, Fragaria virginiana, Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis (= Juncus balticus), and Potentilla gracilis increase in cover (Padgett et al. 1989, Hansen et al. 1995, Crowe and Clausnitzer 1997, Hall and Hansen 1997, Kittel et al. 1999b, Carsey et al. 2003b). Exotic and/or invasive graminoids Poa pratensis and Alopecurus pratensis and forbs Taraxacum officinale and Trifolium repens may be common in heavily grazed/disturbed stands.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Taraxacum officinale G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Trifolium pratense G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Deschampsia caespitosa G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Phleum pratense G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Poa pratensis G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This montane to subalpine shrubland association is widespread in the Rocky Mountains west to the Cascades of Oregon on stream terraces above the channel, on drier edges of wetlands, on broad gently sloping valley bottoms and floodplains, on moderately steep mesic slopes near springs, and near glacial depressions. Elevation ranges from 2500-3450 m (8300-11,320 feet) in Colorado to 860-2267 m (2820-7400 feet) in Montana. Aspect is variable. Soils are typically derived from alluvium and are deep, fine-textured, but vary from sandy loam to clay loam. Gleying and mottling are common. Sites have a high water table that fluctuates (40-100 cm) seasonally.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda increases in abundance with continuous, season-long grazing within riparian areas (Kittel et al. 1999b, Carsey et al. 2003b). Deschampsia cespitosa is highly palatable to livestock. With heavy continuous grazing this community is often invaded by the introduced, grazing-tolerant grass Poa pratensis and may convert to a Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda / Poa pratensis shrubland, then eventual cause decline in Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda cover (Padgett et al. 1989, Hansen et al. 1995, Crowe and Clausnitzer 1997, Hall and Hansen 1997, Kittel et al. 1999b, Carsey et al. 2003b).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 25Jul2005
Element Description Author(s): K.A. Schulz

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2006-2017. Tracked natural plant communities. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. [https://cnhp.colostate.edu/ourdata/trackinglist/plant_communities/]

  • Carsey, K., D. Cooper, K. Decker, D. Culver, and G. Kittel. 2003b. Statewide wetlands classification and characterization: Wetland plant associations of Colorado. Prepared for Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Denver, by Colorado Natural Heritage Program, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 79 pp. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/documents/2003/wetland_classification_final_report_2003.pdf]

  • Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Cogan, D., K. Varga, and G. Kittel. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. Final Project Report 2002-2005 Vegetation Mapping Project. Technical Memorandum 8260-06-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 87 pp. plus Appendixes A-F.

  • Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.

  • Hall, J. B., and P. L. Hansen. 1997. A preliminary riparian habitat type classification system for the Bureau of Land Management districts in southern and eastern Idaho. Riparian and Wetland Research Program, School of Forestry, University of Montana. Idaho Bureau of Land Management, Technical Bulletin No. 97-11. 381 pp.

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • Hansen, P., K. Boggs, and R. Pfister. 1991. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in Montana. Unpublished draft version prepared for Montana Riparian Association, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula. 478 pp.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Johnston, B. C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. R2-ECOL-87-2. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Lakewood, CO. 429 pp.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kettler, S., and A. McMullen. 1996. Routt National Forest riparian vegetation classification. Report prepared for Routt National Forest by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, and J. Sanderson. 1999a. A classification of the riparian plant associations of the Rio Grande and Closed Basin watersheds, Colorado. Unpublished report prepared by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, and M. Damm. 1997a. A classification of the riparian vegetation of the South Platte Basin (and part of Republican River Basin), Colorado. Submitted to Colorado Department of Natural Resources and the Environmental Protection Agency, Region VIII. Prepared by Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

  • MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 2002b. List of ecological communities for Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, Helena, MT.

  • Mutz, K. M., and R. Graham. 1982. Riparian community type classification-Big Piney Range District, Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region under contract 53-84M8-1-974, by Meiiji Resource Consultants, Layton, UT. 88 pp.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1988b. Riparian community type classification of Utah. Publication R4-ECOL-88-01. USDA Forest Service, Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Salas, D., J. Stevens, and K. Schulz. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Technical Memorandum No. 8260-05-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 161 pp. plus Appendices A-L (733 pp.).

  • Sanderson, J., and M. March. 1996. Extreme rich fens of South Park, Colorado: Their distribution, identification, and natural heritage significance. Report submitted to Park County, the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Tendick, A., B. Friesen, G. Kittel, P. Williams, J. Coles, A. Wight, G. Wakefield, and A. Evenden. 2011a. Vegetation classification and mapping project report, Cedar Breaks National Monument. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCPN/NRTR--2011/470. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • WNDD [Wyoming Natural Diversity Database]. No date. Unpublished data on file. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.

  • Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985a. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 78 pp.

  • Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985b. Riparian community type classification of northern Utah and adjacent Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 104 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2019
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019