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Picea mariana / Ledum groenlandicum / Carex trisperma / Sphagnum spp. Open Bog Woodland
Translated Name: Black Spruce / Bog Labrador-tea / Three-seeded Sedge / Peatmoss species Open Bog Woodland
Common Name: Black Spruce Open Bog Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL002485
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This black spruce-dominated raised bog community type is found in the subboreal to boreal regions of the Great Lakes, elsewhere in the boreal region of central Canada, and across to Maine. Stands are typically on the crests of raised bog landforms in large peatland complexes, as well as in basin bogs. Sites are poorly drained, with wet organic substrates. Tree cover forms at least 25% canopy (and may be very dense), varying in height from 3 m to over 10 m. Picea mariana is often the sole species in the canopy. Larix laricina may occasionally occur. The dwarf-shrub layer is dominated by Ledum groenlandicum and other ericaceous shrubs, such as Chamaedaphne calyculata, Vaccinium myrtilloides, Vaccinium oxycoccos, Kalmia polifolia, Kalmia angustifolia, Gaultheria hispidula, and Andromeda polifolia. Picea mariana may also be found in scrub form in this layer. Ground cover consists of a species-poor herb layer, with Carex trisperma, Eriophorum vaginatum, and Maianthemum trifolium most prevalent. Moss cover is a Sphagnum carpet with patches of feathermoss (especially Pleurozium schreberi) and conifer litter beneath the trees. Dominant sphagnum species include Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum recurvum, and Sphagnum angustifolium, and less commonly, Sphagnum capillifolium and Sphagnum girgensohnii. Minerotrophic indicators, such as Betula pumila, Carex stricta, and Carex aquatilis, are absent.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This type is conceptually a raised bog in a large peatland complex, with a more open-treed canopy. It includes both raised and intermediate bogs as described by the MNNHP (1993); however, Minnesota's intermediate bog may also overlap in part with Picea mariana - (Larix laricina) / Ledum groenlandicum / Sphagnum spp. Swamp Forest (CEGL005271), a black spruce poor swamp type). Based on work at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, and work in Ontario, closed stands of black spruce bog may key here or to CEGL005271, a black spruce poor swamp type more typically found in basins. It may be that, apart from peatland setting (i.e., open peatland complex vs. closed basin), these two types are vegetationally indistinguishable. This type is not expected in Wisconsin (E. Epstein pers. comm. 1999). This type extends to the Northern Appalachians in the larger peatland complexes.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.2 - Temperate to Polar Bog & Fen
Division 2.C.2.Na - North American Bog & Fen
Macrogroup North American Boreal & Subboreal Bog & Acidic Fen
Group Eastern North American Boreal Bog & Acidic Fen
Alliance Eastern Boreal Black Spruce Treed Bog

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL005218 Picea mariana / Chamaedaphne calyculata / Sphagnum spp. Open Bog Woodland
CEGL005271 Picea mariana - (Larix laricina) / Ledum groenlandicum / Sphagnum spp. Swamp Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Maine Spruce - larch wooded bog Broader   Gawler 2002
Michigan Muskeg Broader   Kost et al. 2007
Minnesota Black Spruce Bog Type Broader   Minnesota DNR 2005
Minnesota Black Spruce Bog; Treed Subtype Equivalent   Minnesota DNR 2005
New York Black spruce-tamarack bog Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
Vermont Black Spruce Woodland Bog Broader   Thompson and Sorenson 2000
Wisconsin Black spruce swamp Broader   WNHI unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Picea mariana / Ledum groenlandicum / Carex trisperma / Sphagnum spp. Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).
Related Concept Name: Black Spruce / Labrador-tea - Sphagnum (V25)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McCarthy, T. G., R. W. Arnup, J. Nieppola, B. G. Merchant, K. C. Taylor, and W. J. Parton. 1994. Field guide to forest ecosystems of northeastern Ontario. NEST Field Guide FG-001, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Northeast Science and Technology, Timmins, ON.
Related Concept Name: Black Spruce Bog Raised Subtype
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: MNNHP [Minnesota Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. Minnesota's native vegetation: A key to natural communities. Version 1.5. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program, St. Paul, MN. 110 pp.
Related Concept Name: Black Spruce Bog, Intermediate Subtype
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: MNNHP [Minnesota Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. Minnesota's native vegetation: A key to natural communities. Version 1.5. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program, St. Paul, MN. 110 pp.
Related Concept Name: Radiating bog forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Glaser, P. H. 1992b. Vegetation and water chemistry. Pages 15-26 in: H. E. Wright, Jr., B. A. Coffin, and N. E. Aaseng, editors. The patterned peatlands of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES103.581 Eastern Boreal-Sub-boreal Bog
CES103.724 Eastern Boreal-Sub-boreal Conifer Acidic Swamp and Treed Poor Fen


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (03Oct1996)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ME, MI, MN, NH, NY, VT, WI
Canadian Province Distribution: MB, NB, ON, QC
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This black spruce-dominated bog community type is found in the sub-boreal to boreal regions of the Great Lakes and elsewhere in the boreal region of central Canada, ranging from inland areas of Maine to northern Minnesota and northward into central Canada, including Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Aroostook Hills and Lowlands Section
Section Code: 212A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Maine-New Brunswick Foothills and Lowlands Section
Section Code: 212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Fundy Coastal and Interior Section
Section Code: 212C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Central Maine Coastal and Embayment Section
Section Code: 212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Great Lakes Section
Section Code: 212H Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Southern Superior Uplands Section
Section Code: 212J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Superior Uplands Section
Section Code: 212K Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Superior Uplands Section
Section Code: 212L Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Minnesota and Ontario Section
Section Code: 212M Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Minnesota Drift and Lake Plains Section
Section Code: 212N Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southwestern Great Lakes Morainal Section
Section Code: 222K Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lake Modified Till Section
Section Code: 222N Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: White Mountain Section
Section Code: M212A Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Trees cover at least 25% of the canopy (and may be very dense), varying in height from 3 m to over 10 m. Picea mariana is often the sole species in the canopy. Larix laricina may occasionally occur. The dwarf-shrub layer is dominated by Ledum groenlandicum and other ericaceous shrubs, such as Chamaedaphne calyculata, Vaccinium myrtilloides, Vaccinium oxycoccos, Kalmia polifolia, Gaultheria hispidula, and Andromeda polifolia. Picea mariana may also be found in scrub form in this layer. Ground cover consists of a species-poor herb layer, with Carex trisperma, Eriophorum vaginatum, and Maianthemum trifolium most prevalent. Moss cover is a Sphagnum carpet with patches of feathermoss (especially Pleurozium schreberi) and conifer litter beneath the trees. Dominant Sphagnum species include Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum fuscum, and Sphagnum angustifolium, and less commonly, Sphagnum capillifolium (= Sphagnum nemoreum) and Sphagnum girgensohnii. Minerotrophic indicators, such as Betula pumila, Carex stricta, and Carex aquatilis, are absent (Sims et al. 1989, MNNHP 1993, McCarthy et al. 1994, Harris et al. 1996).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Picea mariana G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Myrica gale G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Kalmia angustifolia G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Ledum groenlandicum G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Maianthemum trifolium G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Stands are typically on the crests of raised bog landforms in large peatland complexes, as well as in basin bogs. Sites are poorly drained, with wet organic substrates (Sims et al. 1989, MNNHP 1993, McCarthy et al. 1994, Harris et al. 1996).


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Minnesota NHP (1993)
Element Description Edition Date: 30Oct1998
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Oct1996

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Davis, R. B., and D. A. Anderson. 1991. The eccentric bogs of Maine: A rare wetland type in the United States. Maine Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 146. 145 pp.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Glaser, P. H. 1992b. Vegetation and water chemistry. Pages 15-26 in: H. E. Wright, Jr., B. A. Coffin, and N. E. Aaseng, editors. The patterned peatlands of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

  • Greenall, J. A. 1996. Manitoba's terrestrial plant communities. MS Report 96-02. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, Winnipeg.

  • Harris, A. G., S. C. McMurray, P. W. C. Uhlig, J. K. Jeglum, R. F. Foster, and G. D. Racey. 1996. Field guide to the wetland ecosystem classification for northwestern Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Northwest Science and Technology, Thunder Bay, Ontario. Field guide FG-01. 74 pp. plus appendix.

  • Hop, K., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Lew-Smith, N. Aaseng, and S. Lubinski. [1999]. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. USDI U.S. Geological Survey, La Crosse, WI. 210 pp.

  • Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. 2007. Natural communities of Michigan: Classification and description. Report No. 2007-21, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 314 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/reports/2007-21_Natural_Communites_of_Michigan_Classification_and_Description.pdf]

  • Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.

  • MNNHP [Minnesota Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. Minnesota's native vegetation: A key to natural communities. Version 1.5. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program, St. Paul, MN. 110 pp.

  • McCarthy, T. G., R. W. Arnup, J. Nieppola, B. G. Merchant, K. C. Taylor, and W. J. Parton. 1994. Field guide to forest ecosystems of northeastern Ontario. NEST Field Guide FG-001, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Northeast Science and Technology, Timmins, ON.

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • Minnesota DNR [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources]. 2003-2005a. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota. Three volumes: The Laurentian Mixed Forest Province (2003), The Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province (2005c), The Prairie Parkland and Tallgrass Aspen Parklands provinces (2005b). Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

  • Minnesota DNR [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources]. 2003. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota: The Laurentian Mixed Forest Province. Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

  • ONHIC [Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre]. 2018. Unpublished data. Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada.

  • Sims, R. A., W. D. Towill, K. A. Baldwin, and G. M. Wickware. 1989. Field guide to the forest ecosystem classification for northwestern Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto. 191 pp.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1999b. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Classification of the vegetation of Isle Royale National Park. The Nature Conservancy, Midwest Regional Office, Minneapolis, MN, and International Headquarters, Arlington, VA. 143 pp.

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2005. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.

  • WDNR [Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources]. 2015. The ecological landscapes of Wisconsin: An assessment of ecological resources and a guide to planning sustainable management. PUB-SS-1131 2015. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. [http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/landscapes/Book.html]


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