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Cephalanthus occidentalis / Carex spp. Midwest Shrub Swamp
Translated Name: Common Buttonbush / Sedge species Midwest Shrub Swamp
Common Name: Midwest Buttonbush Shrub Swamp
Unique Identifier: CEGL002190
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This buttonbush swamp shrubland occurs throughout glaciated regions of the midwestern and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Stands occupy shallow water depressions, oxbow ponds, and backwater sloughs of stream and river floodplains. Inundation is usually continuous throughout the year, but these sites can become dry in mid or late summer or during periods of prolonged drought. Soils are deep (>100 cm) consisting of peat or muck over alluvial parent material. The shrub layer can vary from very open to closed (20-80%). Cephalanthus occidentalis typically comprises nearly 90% of the shrub layer in waters 1-2 m deep. Other shrubs commonly encountered include Cornus sericea, Decodon verticillatus, Ilex verticillata, Rosa palustris, and Salix nigra. The herbaceous layer can be very sparse, due to flooding. Rooted or floating aquatics may dominate, including Lemna minor and Nuphar advena. Herbs present on the shallow margins include Bidens frondosa, Boehmeria cylindrica, Carex lacustris, Glyceria striata, and others. A scattered tree canopy may occur, including the following species: Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum, Fraxinus nigra, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Ulmus americana. Diagnostic features include the dominance by Cephalanthus occidentalis in glaciated regions and, typically, the presence of standing water.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: The limits of glaciation used to define the southern boundary of this type include all glacial periods. It may, however, be more practical to use the ecoregion map divisions, such that the southern limit is approximately equal to the southern boundaries of Sections 251C, 222G, 222H and 221F. A rule as to the percentage dominance of Cephalanthus occidentalis (e.g., at least 50% cover) is probably needed to distinguish this type from dogwood-willow swamps. See also Cephalanthus occidentalis - Decodon verticillatus Shrub Swamp (CEGL006069), found in Lower New England and the mid-Atlantic and Central Appalachian regions of the eastern United States.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Midwest Wet Prairie, Wet Meadow & Shrub Swamp
Alliance Midwest Mixed Shrub Swamp

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006069 Cephalanthus occidentalis - Decodon verticillatus Shrub Swamp



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Illinois Pond Intersects   White and Madany 1978
Illinois Shrub swamp Intersects   White and Madany 1978
Indiana Wetland - swamp shrub Broader   Homoya et al. 1988
Michigan Inundated Shrub Swamp Equivalent   Kost et al. 2007
Missouri Shrub swamp Broader   Nelson 1985
Ohio Buttonbush shrub swamp Broader   ONHD unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Cephalanthus occidentalis / Carex spp. Northern Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.582 Laurentian-Acadian Wet Meadow-Shrub Swamp
CES202.694 North-Central Interior Floodplain
CES202.700 North-Central Interior Wet Flatwoods
CES202.701 North-Central Interior Wet Meadow-Shrub Swamp


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (03Oct1996)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: IA, IL, IN, MI, MO, OH
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This buttonbush swamp shrubland occurs throughout glaciated regions of the midwestern and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ranging from northern Missouri north to southern Michigan, east to Ohio and southern Ontario, and south to Indiana and Illinois.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Great Lakes Section
Section Code: 212H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Till Plains, Oak-Hickory Section
Section Code: 222G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Till Plains, Beech-Maple Section
Section Code: 222H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southeastern Great Lakes Section
Section Code: 222J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southwestern Great Lakes Morainal Section
Section Code: 222K Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Prairie Division
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Temperate) Province
Province Code: 251 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Dissected Till Plains Section
Section Code: 251C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Till Plains Section
Section Code: 251D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The shrub layer can vary from very open to closed (20-80%). Cephalanthus occidentalis typically comprises nearly 90% of the shrub layer in waters 1-2 m deep. Other shrubs commonly encountered include Cornus sericea, Decodon verticillatus, Ilex verticillata, Rosa palustris, and Salix nigra. The herbaceous layer can be very sparse, due to flooding. Rooted or floating aquatics may dominate, including Lemna minor and Nuphar advena (= Nuphar lutea ssp. advena). Herbs present on the shallow margins include Bidens frondosa, Boehmeria cylindrica, Carex lacustris, Glyceria striata, and others. In Missouri Hibiscus laevis (= Hibiscus militaris) is common. A scattered tree canopy may occur, including the following species: Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum, Fraxinus nigra, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Ulmus americana (Anderson 1996, Faber-Langendoen and Maycock 1989).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Cephalanthus occidentalis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Cornus sericea G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Rosa palustris G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Salix nigra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Decodon verticillatus G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Lysimachia nummularia G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lythrum salicaria G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex crinita G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Carex lupulina G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Lemna minor G4 Aquatic herb Floating aquatic  
 
 
Lemna trisulca G4 Aquatic herb Floating aquatic  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This wet shrubland community occupies shallow water depressions, oxbow ponds, and backwater sloughs of stream and river floodplains throughout swampy forested areas in glaciated terrain. Inundation is usually continuous throughout the year, but these sites can become dry in mid or late summer or during periods of prolonged drought (Faber-Langendoen and Maycock 1989). Soils are deep (>100 cm) consisting of peat or muck over alluvial parent material.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen (2001)
Element Description Edition Date: 16Jul1998
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Oct1996

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., and P. F. Maycock. 1989. Community patterns and environmental gradients of buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis, ponds in lowland forests of southern Ontario. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 103(4):479-485.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).

  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.

  • Hop, K., J. Drake, A. Strassman, E. Hoy, J. Jakusz, S. Menard, and J. Dieck. 2013. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/HTLN/NRT--2013/792. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 302 pp.

  • Hop, K., S. Lubinski, J. Dieck, J. Drake, and S. Menard. 2009. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. USDI U.S. Geological Survey, La Crosse, WI, and NatureServe, St. Paul, MN. 312 pp.

  • Hop, K., S. Lubinski, and S. Menard. 2005. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program, Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa. USDI U.S. Geological Survey, La Crosse, WI. 202 pp.

  • Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. 2007. Natural communities of Michigan: Classification and description. Report No. 2007-21, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 314 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/reports/2007-21_Natural_Communites_of_Michigan_Classification_and_Description.pdf]

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • Nelson, P. 2010. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Conservation, Jefferson City.

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.


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