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Carex comosa - Carex decomposita - Dulichium arundinaceum - Lycopus rubellus Marsh
Translated Name: Longhair Sedge - Cypress-knee Sedge - Threeway Sedge - Taperleaf Water-horehound Marsh
Common Name: Sinkhole Pond Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL002413
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This sinkhole pond marsh type is found in the Interior Highlands region of the United States. Stands occur in sinkholes and depressions of terraces and broad level uplands, including those with karst topography. Soils are very poorly drained, with surface water present for extended periods of the year, sometimes up to 1 m in depth. Soils are deep (>100 cm) consisting of peat, muck, or mineral. The parent material may be sand, rock or loess, where depressions occur on hardpans. The vegetation is variable, depending on water fluctuations, with zones of tall emergents, submerged aquatics, or vegetative mats. Dominant emergents include Typha latifolia, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus tabernaemontani) and Nelumbo lutea. In Missouri, other characteristic plants include Carex comosa, Glyceria acutiflora, Potamogeton diversifolius, Alopecurus aequalis, Galium tinctorium, Sagittaria rigida, Dulichium arundinaceum, Hottonia inflata, Ceratophyllum echinatum, Viola lanceolata, Wolffia brasiliensis (= Wolffia papulifera), Isoetes engelmannii. Sand ponds are characterized by Iris fulva, Carex crus-corvi, Rhynchospora corniculata, Juncus nodatus, Saururus cernuus, and Hydrolea uniflora. Indiana ponds may contain Sparganium androcladum, Nuphar advena (= Nuphar lutea ssp. advena), Cephalanthus occidentalis, Decodon verticillatus, Utricularia gibba, and Carex comosa.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: The concept of the type is taken from the Missouri state classification - Pond Marsh (Nelson 1985) and Indiana state classification - Sinkhole Pond (Homoya et al. 1985). Nelson provides lists of additional species in Missouri that are restricted to, but potentially not consistently found in, this type. See also thesis work by Haefner (1983), a survey of sinkhole ponds in karst plain topography. This type is found in Kentucky (e.g., Kentucky Broadhead Swamp?, Mammoth Cave) and ought to be in Tennessee. Other sinkhole pond types, Decodon verticillatus Southeastern Shrub Swamp (CEGL003905) and Cephalanthus occidentalis / Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. moscheutos Wet Shrubland (CEGL004742) may overlap floristically with this type.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Central Interior-Appalachian Open Depression Pond
Alliance Southern Interior Threeway Sedge Depression Pond Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003905 Decodon verticillatus Southeastern Shrub Swamp
CEGL004719 Scirpus cyperinus - Panicum rigidulum - Rhynchospora corniculata - (Dulichium arundinaceum) Marsh
CEGL004742 Cephalanthus occidentalis / Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. moscheutos Wet Shrubland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Indiana Lake - pond sinkhole Broader   Homoya et al. 1988
Missouri Pond Marsh Equivalent   Nelson 1985
Tennessee Carex comosa - Carex decomposita - Dulichium arundinaceum - Lycopus rubellus Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Pond Marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Nelson, P. W. 1985. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Jefferson City. 197 pp. Revised edition, 1987.
Related Concept Name: Sinkhole Pond
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Homoya, M. A., D. B. Abrell, J. R. Aldrich, and T. W. Post. 1985. The natural regions of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 94:245-268.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.018 Central Interior Highlands and Appalachian Sinkhole and Depression Pond


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G4 (22Mar2000)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: The SRANK for Missouri will be revisited (M. Leahy pers. comm. 1999).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: IN, KY, MO, TNpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This sinkhole pond marsh type is found in the Interior Highlands region of the United States, ranging from southern Indiana and southeastern Missouri to Kentucky and possibly Tennessee.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Ozark Highlands Section
Section Code: 222A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Shawnee Hills Section
Section Code: 222D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Lower Mississippi Riverine Forest Province
Province Code: 234 Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Division Name: Prairie Division
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Temperate) Province
Province Code: 251 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Dissected Till Plains Section
Section Code: 251C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation is variable, depending on water fluctuations, with zones of tall emergents, submerged aquatics, or vegetative mats. Dominant emergents include Typha latifolia, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus tabernaemontani) and Nelumbo lutea. In Missouri, other characteristic plants include Carex comosa, Glyceria acutiflora, Potamogeton diversifolius, Alopecurus aequalis, Galium tinctorium, Sagittaria rigida, Dulichium arundinaceum, Hottonia inflata, Ceratophyllum echinatum, Viola lanceolata, Wolffia brasiliensis (= Wolffia papulifera), Isoetes engelmannii. Sand ponds are characterized by Iris fulva, Carex crus-corvi, Rhynchospora corniculata, Juncus nodatus, Saururus cernuus, and Hydrolea uniflora. Indiana ponds may contain Sparganium androcladum, Nuphar advena (= Nuphar lutea ssp. advena), Cephalanthus occidentalis, Decodon verticillatus, Utricularia gibba, and Carex comosa (Homoya et al. 1985, Nelson 1985).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carex comosa G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex decomposita G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Dulichium arundinaceum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Typha latifolia G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Carex decomposita
  (Cypress-knee Sedge)
G3G4  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Stands occur in sinkholes and depressions of terraces and broad level uplands, including those in karst topography. Soils are very poorly drained, with surface water present for extended periods of the year, sometimes up to 1 m in depth. Soils are deep (>100 cm) consisting of peat, muck, or mineral. The parent material may be sand, rock or loess, where depressions occur on hardpans (Nelson 1985).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Droughts may cause these sinkholes to dry out completely (Nelson 1985).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
Element Description Edition Date: 23Mar2000
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Mar2000

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Chastain, R. A., M.A. Struckhoff, K. W. Grabner, E. D. Stroh, H. He, D. R. Larsen, T. A. Nigh, and J. Drake. 2006. Mapping vegetation communities in Ozark National Scenic Riverways: Final technical report to the National Park Service. Open-File Report 2006-1354. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA. 90 pp. plus appendices.

  • Haefner, R. A. 1983. A survey of sinkhole pond natural communities in Missouri. M.S. thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia. 83 pp.

  • Homoya, M. A., D. B. Abrell, J. R. Aldrich, and T. W. Post. 1985. The natural regions of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 94:245-268.

  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.

  • Leahy, Mike. Personal communication. Missouri Natural Heritage Database, Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City.

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • Nelson, P. 2010. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Conservation, Jefferson City.

  • Nelson, P. W. 1985. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Jefferson City. 197 pp. Revised edition, 1987.

  • Pyne, M., E. Lunsford Jones, and R. White. 2010. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Mammoth Cave National Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 334 pp.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.


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