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Quercus rubra - Tsuga canadensis - Liriodendron tulipifera / Hamamelis virginiana Forest
Translated Name: Northern Red Oak - Eastern Hemlock - Tuliptree / American Witch-hazel Forest
Common Name: Red Oak - Hemlock - Mixed Hardwood Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006566
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This closed-canopy, dry-mesic deciduous forest occurs on deep, moist to well-drained loams and silt loams on northern and eastern midslopes and coves. The canopy is dominated by a variety of oaks, hickories and conifers, including Quercus rubra, Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, Betula lenta, Carya tomentosa, Fraxinus americana, and Liriodendron tulipifera, with notable presence of Tsuga canadensis and/or Pinus strobus. The subcanopy and shrub layer consists of Ostrya virginiana, Carpinus caroliniana, Kalmia latifolia, Hamamelis virginiana, Vaccinium pallidum, Amelanchier laevis, Lindera benzoin, Viburnum acerifolium, and Viburnum recognitum. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Maianthemum racemosum, Gaultheria procumbens, Mitchella repens, Chimaphila maculata, Thelypteris noveboracensis, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Maianthemum canadense, and Podophyllum peltatum. This vegetation occurs in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania and may occur in adjacent states.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Interior-Northeastern Mesic Forest
Group Appalachian-Allegheny Northern Hardwood - Conifer Forest
Alliance Northern Red Oak - Sugar Maple - Sweet Birch Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006125 Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum - Liriodendron tulipifera Forest
CEGL006474 Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia - Quercus (montana, alba) Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
New York Hemlock-northern hardwood forest Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Hemlock - tuliptree - birch forest Broader   Fike 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Mixed Hemlock - Hardwoods community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1977. Vegetation of Morristown National Historical Park: Ecological analysis and management alternatives. Final Report. USDI National Park Service Contract No. 1600-7-0004. 166 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.593 Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4? (29Sep2004)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Within its range, this community type occurs extensively in suitable habitats. Occurrences are subject to compositional modification by outbreaks of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an exotic insect pest that causes decline and eventual mortality of Tsuga canadensis.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NJ, NY, PA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This vegetation occurs in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania and may occur in adjacent states.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy has a notable presence of Tsuga canadensis and/or Pinus strobus. Sharing dominance with these conifers is a variety of oaks and hickories including Quercus rubra, Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, Betula lenta, Carya tomentosa, Fraxinus americana, Liriodendron tulipifera. The subcanopy and shrub layer consists of Ostrya virginiana, Carpinus caroliniana, Kalmia latifolia, Hamamelis virginiana, Amelanchier laevis, Lindera benzoin, Viburnum acerifolium, and Viburnum recognitum. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Maianthemum racemosum (= Smilacina racemosa), Gaultheria procumbens, Maianthemum canadense, and Podophyllum peltatum.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Liriodendron tulipifera G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus rubra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus strobus G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Tsuga canadensis G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Hamamelis virginiana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Gaultheria procumbens G4 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Maianthemum canadense G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Maianthemum racemosum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Podophyllum peltatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This vegetation occurs on deep, moist to well-drained loams and silt loams on northern and eastern midslopes and coves. Soils may be rocky, and slopes may be steep.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 05Jun2006
Element Description Author(s): L.A. Sneddon
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Sep2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Anderson, M., F. Biasi, and S. Buttrick. 1998. Conservation site selection: Ecoregional planning for biodiversity. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA. 18 pp.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1977. Vegetation of Morristown National Historical Park: Ecological analysis and management alternatives. Final Report. USDI National Park Service Contract No. 1600-7-0004. 166 pp.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Sechler, F. C., G. J. Edinger, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, L. A. Sneddon, C. Lea, and J. Von Loh. 2014. Vegetation classification and mapping at Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites, New York. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NETN/NRTR--2014/873, National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 392 pp.

  • Sneddon, L., R. E. Zaremba, E. Largay, G. Podniesinski, S. Perles, and J. Thompson. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping of Morristown National Historical Park, New Jersey. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/116. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 162 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/morr/morrrpt.pdf]


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