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Pinus taeda / Liquidambar styraciflua - Acer rubrum var. rubrum / Vaccinium stamineum Ruderal Forest
Translated Name: Loblolly Pine / Sweetgum - Red Maple / Deerberry Ruderal Forest
Common Name: Ruderal Loblolly Pine / Sweetgum - Red Maple Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006011
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This wide-ranging association is most common from the Piedmont of Virginia, through North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama, likely extending throughout the adjacent Coastal Plain. A large amount of variability exists in species composition and density due to geographic and disturbance factors. It represents stands in which Pinus taeda is the monospecific dominant tree in the overstory. Stands typically have more-or-less closed canopies, understories dominated by fire-intolerant hardwoods, and shrub-dominated lower strata. These are generally early- to mid-successional forests where the pines have reached tree size (as opposed to saplings) and have been established for a long enough period to have developed a closed canopy. Below the canopy of Pinus taeda, a well-developed subcanopy of hardwoods is present. Acer rubrum var. rubrum and Liquidambar styraciflua are often the dominant species in the subcanopy. If significant numbers of these species enter the canopy, the stand would instead be classified as Pinus taeda - Liquidambar styraciflua Ruderal Forest (CEGL008462). Although this forest may result from a planted stand [see Pinus taeda Forest Plantation (CST007179)], it is distinguished from young pine plantations by tree height and the formation of distinct stratal layers, especially a well-developed subcanopy. This type may also develop following site preparation, with or without site conversion, and following agriculture.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: The similarity of this association with Pinus taeda - Liquidambar styraciflua Ruderal Forest (CEGL008462) suggests that a merge with that type should be considered.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.1 - Warm Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.1.Na - Southeastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southeastern North American Ruderal Forest
Group Southeastern Native Ruderal Forest
Alliance Ruderal Loblolly Pine - Tuliptree - Sweetgum Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002591 Pinus virginiana Ruderal Forest
CEGL004766 Pinus taeda - Quercus (alba, falcata, stellata) Successional Coastal Plain Forest
CEGL006327 Pinus echinata Ruderal Forest
CEGL007105 Pinus taeda - Liriodendron tulipifera / Acer saccharum Ruderal Forest
CEGL008450 Pinus taeda - Quercus falcata - Liquidambar styraciflua / Rhus copallinum Ruderal Forest
CEGL008462 Pinus taeda - Liquidambar styraciflua Ruderal Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Early to Mid-Successional Loblolly Pine Forest Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Pinus taeda / Liquidambar styraciflua - Acer rubrum var. rubrum / Vaccinium stamineum Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Bartgis, R. 1986. Natural community descriptions. Unpublished draft. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.
Related Concept Name: Pinus taeda / Liquidambar styraciflua - Acer rubrum var. rubrum / Vaccinium stamineum Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: IF3b. Plantation (Hardwood or Conifer)
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Loblolly Pine (21)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.
Related Concept Name: Loblolly Pine - Hardwood: 82
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Loblolly Pine: 81
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (08Aug2002)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Reasons: This is a successional forest composed of species native to the southeastern United States; it is not of conservation concern and does not receive a conservation status rank.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, DE, GA, LA, MD, MS, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This forest ranges from the Piedmont of Virginia, through North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama, extending into the adjacent coastal plains, including the eastern end of the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain (e.g., Talladega National Forest).

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Possible


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The tree canopy of Pinus taeda is at least 60% but may be considerably more dense, up to and including closed canopies. Tree subcanopy density varies with stand disturbance history but generally is <50%. Shrub and herb layer coverages do not exceed 25% and decrease with increasing age of the stand. Other species of pine, especially Pinus echinata and Pinus virginiana may be sparingly present in the canopy. Other species that may be present in the subcanopy in addition to Liquidambar styraciflua and Acer rubrum var. rubrum include Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina, Quercus alba, Quercus falcata, Nyssa sylvatica, Carya glabra, Carya alba, Diospyros virginiana, Prunus serotina, Cornus florida, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Sassafras albidum (NatureServe Ecology unpubl. data). Other species in addition to Vaccinium stamineum that may be present in the shrub stratum include Juniperus virginiana, Vaccinium arboreum, Rhus copallinum, Gaylussacia baccata, Callicarpa americana, and probably others. The herbaceous layer usually forms <5% cover and contains such species as Gelsemium sempervirens, Chimaphila maculata, Polystichum acrostichoides, and Potentilla canadensis. An example from Oconee National Forest has a thinned canopy and grassy herbaceous layer. The exotic Lonicera japonica may be common within occurrences of this community.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Pinus taeda GNA Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Acer rubrum GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Liquidambar styraciflua GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Vaccinium stamineum GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Lonicera japonica GNA Liana Herb (field)      
 
 


Vegetation Structure
Stratum Growth Form
Height of Stratum (m)
Cover
Class
%
Min
Cover %
Max
Cover %
Tree canopy Needle-leaved tree
 
 
 
 
Tree subcanopy Broad-leaved deciduous tree
 
 
 
 
Short shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous shrub
 
 
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This forest follows agricultural cropping or silvicultural site preparation on a variety of sites, and presumably is more likely on moderately dissected topography where fire is a rare occurrence. This community usually is not present on steep slopes and does not occur on wet soils. It occurs on well- to moderately well-drained soils, usually Ultisols, on sites that formerly were under hardwood cover or subjected to agriculture.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: As Pinus taeda plantations mature, they are likely to develop into this community depending on management. The pine component initially outgrows the hardwoods and typically reaches the canopy first. Hardwoods rapidly fill in and reach the subcanopy if not aggressively suppressed though management. Although stands of this forest are most commonly related to forest management, they may also develop following agriculture on old, abandoned fields adjacent to a significant seed source of Pinus taeda.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): R. Roecker, mod. S. Landaal
Element Description Edition Date: 18Sep2008
Element Description Author(s): S. Landaal and L.A. Sneddon
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Jul2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Bartgis, R. 1986. Natural community descriptions. Unpublished draft. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Felix, A. C., III, T. L. Sharik, B. S. McGinnes, and W. C. Johnson. 1983. Succession in loblolly pine plantations converted from second growth forest in the central Piedmont of Virginia. The American Midland Naturalist 110:365-380.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • McCrain, G. R., and B. H. Church. 1985. An analysis of past and present plant community patterns in Moores Creek National Battlefield along with associated impacts affecting distribution and restoration. Prepared by Resource Management Co., Raleigh, NC, under Purchase Order Number PX-5550-3-0062 for the USDI, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office, Atlanta, GA.

  • McManamay, R. H., A. Curtis, and M. W. Byrne. 2012. Vegetation mapping at Moores Creek National Battlefield. Natural Resource Data Series NPS/SECN/NRDS--2012/319. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 173 pp.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Central Databases. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Nordman, C., M. Russo, and L. Smart. 2011. Vegetation types of the Natchez Trace Parkway, based on the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe Central Databases (International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications). Arlington, VA. Data current as of 11 April 2011. 548 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008d. Vegetation classification and mapping at George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/099. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 231 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008e. Vegetation classification and mapping at Petersburg National Battlefield, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/127. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 235 pp.

  • Schotz, A., H. Summer, and R. White, Jr. 2008. Vascular plant inventory and ecological community classification for Little River Canyon National Preserve. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 244 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2004. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Cowpens National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 126 pp.


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