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Fraxinus nigra - Acer rubrum / Rhamnus alnifolia / Carex leptalea Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Black Ash - Red Maple / Alderleaf Buckthorn / Bristly-stalked Sedge Swamp Forest
Common Name: Black Ash - Red Maple Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007441
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This closed-canopy deciduous swamp forest occurs in poorly drained depressions or seepage zones in the unglaciated portions of the Lower New England/Northern Piedmont, High Allegheny Plateau, and Central Appalachians ecoregions. This forest can occur as narrow zones to small inclusions to large swamps. Soils are generally mucky and without substantial peat development. It often occurs in areas of calcareous bedrock. The canopy is codominated by Acer rubrum and Fraxinus nigra with associates such as Betula alleghaniensis, Ulmus rubra, Ulmus americana, and Pinus strobus. The understory is patchy, ranging from shrub-dominated to sedge-dominated. Shrubs include Lindera benzoin, Toxicodendron vernix, Alnus incana, Salix spp., and Rhamnus alnifolia. The herb layer is diverse with Carex leptalea, Carex bromoides, Caltha palustris, Veratrum viride, Platanthera grandiflora, Geum rivale, Symplocarpus foetidus, Cypripedium reginae, Trollius laxus, Osmunda cinnamomea, Impatiens capensis, Cardamine bulbosa, Saxifraga pensylvanica, Dryopteris cristata, Carex lacustris, and Symplocarpus foetidus.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Central Hardwood Swamp Forest
Group Central Appalachian-Northeast Acidic Swamp
Alliance Northeastern Red Maple - Green Ash Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006009 Acer rubrum - Fraxinus nigra - (Larix laricina) / Rhamnus alnifolia Swamp Forest
CEGL008416 Acer rubrum - Fraxinus nigra - Betula alleghaniensis / Veratrum viride - Carex bromoides Seep Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
New York Red maple-hardwood swamp Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
Ohio Maple-ash-oak swamp Broader   ONHD unpubl. data
Pennsylvania Red Maple - Black Ash Palustrine Forest Broader   Fike 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Red maple-black ash swamp
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.605 North-Central Interior and Appalachian Rich Swamp


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: MD, NY, OH, PA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: Found in the unglaciated portions of Lower New England/Northern Piedmont, High Allegheny Plateau, and Central Appalachians, from New York to Maryland and West Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Fraxinus nigra GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Rhamnus alnifolia GNR Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Carex leptalea GNR Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 31Jan2007
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Eichelberger, B. 2011j. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Red Maple - Black Ash Palustrine Forest Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=16022] (accessed January 31, 2012)

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Hop, K., J. Drake, A. Strassman, E. Hoy, J. Jakusz, S. Menard, and J. Dieck. 2013. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/HTLN/NRT--2013/792. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 302 pp.

  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]


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