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Salix exigua / Equisetum arvense Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Narrowleaf Willow / Field Horsetail Wet Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL001201
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This shrubland is a riparian tall-shrub vegetation type that grows on sediment bars and channel edges at middle elevations in mountains of the northwestern U.S. In eastern Idaho and western Wyoming stands of this type generally are found at elevations below 2160 m (7100 feet) and are bordered by other riparian shrublands or by Picea engelmannii forests, while stands in eastern Oregon are found between 914 and 1323 m (3000-4340 feet) next to Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, or Abies grandis forests. Soils are cobbly in the lower horizons but may contain virtually no coarse fragments in the surface horizon. The shrub layer is dense, 1 to 2 m (3-6.5 feet) tall, and dominated by Salix exigua or Salix melanopsis, and sometimes contains small amounts of other shrubs. The herbaceous undergrowth contains substantial amounts of Equisetum arvense or Calamagrostis canadensis. Stands of this type depend on floods that create new sediment bars for their establishment, but they have been little affected by recent flooding beyond deposition of small amounts of sediment. Stands of this association are distinguished from stands of other Salix exigua or Salix melanopsis associations by the presence of at least 5% canopy cover of Equisetum arvense or at least 25% canopy cover of Calamagrostis canadensis in the undergrowth.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This association is defined as a PNV vegetation type. If it were renamed as a dominance type, the species would include Salix exigua and Salix eriocephala. This association apparently has been named explicitly only from western Wyoming and eastern Idaho by Youngblood et al. (1985a), but stands of other associations from other places might be placed into it, i.e., the Salix exigua / Eleocharis palustris - Schoenoplectus americanus Association of Oregon, the Salix / Equisetum species Association of eastern Washington, and the Salix exigua Community Type of Montana. While the authors of some of these types may include Salix melanopsis (= Salix exigua ssp. melanopsis) in their associations, in the U.S. National Vegetation Classification, Salix melanopsis-dominated communities should be placed into separate plant associations and alliance(s).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Western North American Montane Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Lowland-Foothill Riparian Shrubland
Alliance Narrowleaf Willow - Dewystem Willow Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL001203 Salix exigua / Mesic Graminoids Western Wet Shrubland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Salix exigua / Equisetum arvense Shrubland Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
New Mexico Salix exigua/Equisetum laevigatum CT Finer Somewhat certain Muldavin et al. 2000
Oregon Salix exigua / Equisetum arvense Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004
Wyoming Salix exigua / Equisetum arvense Shrubland Equivalent Certain WNDD unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Salix / Equisetum species Association
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 2001. Classification and management of aquatic, riparian and wetland sites on the national forests of eastern Washington. Part 1: The series descriptions. 429 pp. plus appendix. [http://www.reo.gov/col/wetland_classification/wetland_classification.pdf]
Related Concept Name: Salix exigua / Eleocharis palustris - Schoenoplectus americanus Association
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]
Related Concept Name: Salix exigua / Equisetum arvense Community Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985a. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 78 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix exigua
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.
Related Concept Name: Salix exigua / Mesic Forb Community Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Related Concept Name: Salix exigua / Mesic Graminoid
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Salix exigua Community Type
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES306.821 Rocky Mountain Lower Montane-Foothill Riparian Woodland and Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3? (27Sep2004)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: The G3? rank is proposed to replace the former G3 rank for the following reasons. First, the "?" qualifier, denoting uncertainty over rarity or commonness, should be added because this association seems to be represented by few occurrences, despite the wide distribution of Salix exigua. Those occurrences are small, and it appears that a substantial proportion of them are in moderate or poor condition. In addition, targeted inventory for this association has not occurred in portions of its probable range, so it could prove to be more common than appears from the number of documented occurrences. Stands of this association seem to require flooding that creates bare sediment bars for willow establishment and then a reduction in flooding for the development of the undergrowth, and possibly are seral to other riparian vegetation types. The vulnerability of the undergrowths in these stands to changes in composition with disturbance and speed with which the undergrowth recovers apparently have not been assessed.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ID, NM, OR, WA, WY
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: The geographic range is assumed to include the mountains of far western Wyoming, the mountains of Idaho, and the mountains of eastern Oregon and Washington.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Basin and Range Section
Section Code: 342B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Owyhee Uplands Section
Section Code: 342C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: High Lava Plains Section
Section Code: 342H Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Columbia Basin Section
Section Code: 342I Occurrence Status: Possible
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Yellowstone Highlands Section
Section Code: M331A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Overthrust Mountains Section
Section Code: M331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Mountains Section
Section Code: M332G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The shrub layer is dense, 1 to 2 m (3-6.5 feet) tall, and dominated by Salix exigua or Salix melanopsis, and sometimes contains small amounts of other shrubs. The herbaceous undergrowth contains substantial amounts of Equisetum arvense or Calamagrostis canadensis. According to Youngblood et al. (1985a), stands of this type depend on floods that create new sediment bars for their establishment, but they have been little affected by recent flooding beyond deposition of small amounts of sediment. Stands of this association are distinguished from stands of other Salix exigua or Salix melanopsis associations by the presence of at least 5% canopy cover of Equisetum arvense or at least 25% canopy cover of Calamagrostis canadensis in the undergrowth.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Salix exigua G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Salix melanopsis G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Equisetum arvense G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 
Calamagrostis canadensis G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This shrubland is a riparian tall-shrub vegetation type that grows on sediment bars and channel edges at middle elevations in mountains of the northwestern U.S. In eastern Idaho and western Wyoming (Youngblood et al. 1985a) stands of this type generally are found at elevations below 2160 m (7100 feet) and are bordered by other riparian shrublands or by Picea engelmannii forests, while stands in eastern Oregon (Crowe and Clausnitzer 1997) are found between 914 and 1323 m (3000-4340 feet) next to Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, or Abies grandis forests. Soils are cobbly in the lower horizons but may contain virtually no coarse fragments in the surface horizon.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Salix exigua and Salix melanopsis become established on bare sediments (Youngblood et al. 1985a, Padgett et al. 1989, Hansen et al. 1995 ). Once established, the shrubs sprout from the roots (Hansen et al. 1995, Crowe and Clausnitzer 1997, Kovalchik 2001, Crowe et al. 2004) and recover from many forms of disturbance (Hansen et al. 1995). Development of the Equisetum arvense-dominated undergrowth apparently requires a reduction in flood frequency or severity after the shrubs become established (Youngblood et al. 1985a). Long periods of only minor flooding may result in replacement of these stands with other willow types (Youngblood et al. 1985a, Hansen et al. 1995) or cottonwood woodlands (Kittel et al. 1999b, Crowe et al. 2004 [Salix melanopsis Association]). Consequently, stands of this association seem to require flooding that creates bare sediment bars for willow establishment and then a reduction in flooding for the development of the undergrowth, and possibly to be seral to other riparian vegetation types. The vulnerability of the undergrowth in these stands to changes in composition with disturbance and speed with which the undergrowth recovers apparently have not been assessed.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 27Sep2004
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Jones and G. Kittel
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Sep2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Jones

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Crawford, Rex. Personal communication. Vegetation Ecologist - Eastern WA, Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.

  • Erixson, J., D. Cogan, and J. Von Loh. 2011b. Vegetation inventory project report: Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area. Natural Resource Report NPS/UCBN/NRR--2011/434 National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Girard, M., D. L. Wheeler, and S. B. Mills. 1997. Classification of riparian communities on the Bighorn National Forest. R2-RR-97-02. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Sheridan, WY. 308 pp.

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Jones, G. 1992b. Wyoming plant community classification (Draft). Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 183 pp.

  • Jones, G. P., and G. M. Walford. 1995. Major riparian vegetation types of eastern Wyoming. Submitted to Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 245 pp.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kagan, Jimmy. Personal communication. Coordinator, Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 2001. Classification and management of aquatic, riparian and wetland sites on the national forests of eastern Washington. Part 1: The series descriptions. 429 pp. plus appendix. [http://www.reo.gov/col/wetland_classification/wetland_classification.pdf]

  • Muldavin, E., P. Durkin, M. Bradley, M. Stuever, and P. Mehlhop. 2000a. Handbook of wetland vegetation communities of New Mexico. Volume I: Classification and community descriptions. Final report to the New Mexico Environment Department and the Environmental Protection Agency prepared by the New Mexico Natural Heritage Program, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Rust, Steve. Personal communication. Ecologist, Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID.

  • WNDD [Wyoming Natural Diversity Database]. No date. Unpublished data on file. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Walford, G. M. 1996. Statewide classification of riparian and wetland dominance types and plant communities - Bighorn Basin segment. Report submitted to the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Land Quality Division by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. 185 pp.

  • Walford, G., G. Jones, W. Fertig, S. Mellman-Brown, and K. Houston. 2001. Riparian and wetland plant community types of the Shoshone National Forest. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-85. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO. 122 pp.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.

  • Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985a. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 78 pp.


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