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Nyssa biflora / Cephalanthus occidentalis - Leucothoe racemosa Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Swamp Tupelo / Common Buttonbush - Swamp Doghobble Swamp Forest
Common Name: Piedmont Swamp Tupelo Upland Depression Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL004550
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This vegetation occurs in seasonally flooded upland pools in the lower Piedmont of North Carolina. Vegetation is zoned with an outer ring of trees, a more interior ring of shrubs, herbs and vines, and a central area with or without standing water year round depending on precipitation. Tree species include Nyssa biflora, Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Nyssa sylvatica, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus nigra. The shrub zone is dominated by Cephalanthus occidentalis, Leucothoe racemosa, and Viburnum nudum var. nudum, with Alnus serrulata, Ilex verticillata, Itea virginica, and others. Herbaceous dominants include Smilax laurifolia, Juncus repens, Carex crinita, and Panicum virgatum var. virgatum.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: Documented by NCVS plot data from the Uwharrie National Forest.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Basin Swamp & Flatwoods
Group Coastal Plain Hardwood Basin Swamp
Alliance Coastal Plain Tupelo Depression Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004075 Cephalanthus occidentalis - (Leucothoe racemosa) / Carex joorii Shrub Swamp
CEGL004116 Nyssa biflora / Cephalanthus occidentalis - Lyonia lucida Sagpond Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Upland Pool (Pleasant Grove Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Upland Pool
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.336 Piedmont Upland Depression Swamp


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (17Jan2001)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This community type is very limited in potential occurrence. It occurs only in isolated upland depression ponds in the Piedmont, which are very rare. Total acreage of this community is very likely less than 100 acres, and all examples have likely been altered to a degree. Known occurrences on the Uwharrie National Forest are in the context of fire-maintained longleaf pine communities, and it is likely that fire is an important factor in maintaining the structure and composition of this community, which would burn in drought periods. Controlled burning at known occurrences in the Uwharries is maintaining appropriate conditions, but occurrences on private land are unlikely to receive fire management.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is documented from the Uwharrie National Forest in the south-central Piedmont of North Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Tree species include Nyssa biflora, Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Nyssa sylvatica, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus nigra. The shrub zone is dominated by Cephalanthus occidentalis, Leucothoe racemosa, and Viburnum nudum var. nudum, with Alnus serrulata, Ilex verticillata, Itea virginica, and others. Vines form tangles; Smilax laurifolia is characteristic. Herbaceous dominants include Juncus repens, Carex crinita, and Panicum virgatum var. virgatum.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association occurs in seasonally flooded upland depressions in the Piedmont of North Carolina. It may be somewhat more widespread, but potential occurrence is very limited.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): R.K. Peet and A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 01Aug1996
Element Description Author(s): R.K. Peet and A.S. Weakley
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Jan2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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