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Nyssa biflora - Liriodendron tulipifera - Pinus (serotina, taeda) / Lyonia lucida Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Swamp Tupelo - Tuliptree - (Pond Pine, Loblolly Pine) / Shining Fetterbush Swamp Forest
Common Name: Sandhills Swamp Tupelo - Pine Streamhead Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL004734
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This streamhead swamp forest type includes very wet forests along mucky small streams in sandy terrain, which are dominated by combinations of Nyssa biflora, Acer rubrum var. rubrum, and Liriodendron tulipifera and have undergrowth of pocosin species. Pines (Pinus serotina, Pinus taeda) are usually present but do not dominate. In the Francis Marion National Forest, South Carolina, the understory is dominated by Acer rubrum and Persea palustris. Prominent shrubs include Ilex glabra, Lyonia lucida, Clethra alnifolia, and Morella caroliniensis. Smilax laurifolia is a prominent vine. The herb layer is dominated by Osmunda cinnamomea and Carex elliottii. Though flooded occasionally by stream water, stands are also kept saturated by seepage input.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Some examples may exhibit dominance by Carex elliottii (Glitzenstein and Streng 2004).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Basin Swamp & Flatwoods
Group Coastal Plain Hardwood Basin Swamp
Alliance Tupelo Nonriverine Seepage Flat Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Sandhill Streamhead Swamp Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Coastal Plain Small Stream Swamp (Blackwater Subtype)
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Sandhill Streamhead Swamp
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.247 Atlantic Coastal Plain Blackwater Stream Floodplain Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3? (31Jan2001)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This community occurs in the Fall-line Sandhills region of North Carolina and South Carolina, and may occur locally in other parts of the Coastal Plain with relatively high relief of sandy soils. Within that region, this type is locally fairly common. Examples are of moderate size. Landscape integrity is generally fairly high, though all examples have likely been subjected to timber removal. Fire may play some role in these forests as well, creeping in from surrounding uplands in drought conditions

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GApotentially occurs, NC, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs in the Fall-line Sandhills region of North Carolina and South Carolina, and may occur locally in other parts of the Coastal Plain with relatively high relief of sandy soils.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: A stand in the Francis Marion National Forest, South Carolina, attributed to this association has a canopy dominated by Nyssa biflora, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Pinus taeda. The understory is dominated by Acer rubrum and Persea palustris. Prominent shrubs include Ilex glabra, Lyonia lucida, Clethra alnifolia, and Morella caroliniensis. Smilax laurifolia is a prominent vine. The herb layer is dominated by Osmunda cinnamomea and Carex elliottii. Other herbs include Andropogon glomeratus var. hirsutior, Dichanthelium dichotomum, Eleocharis tortilis, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Platanthera clavellata, Platanthera lacera, Rhynchospora cephalantha (= var. attenuata), and Woodwardia areolata.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These are very wet forests along mucky small streams in sandy terrain. The habitat of this association is flooded occasionally by stream water, but is primarily kept saturated by seepage input.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M.P. Schafale
Element Description Edition Date: 21Apr2004
Element Description Author(s): M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Jan2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Glitzenstein, J. S., and D. R. Streng. 2004. Evaluating the NatureServe preliminary plant community classification for Francis Marion National Forest. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Plus appendices and data.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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