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Nyssa biflora - Acer rubrum var. trilobum - Liriodendron tulipifera / Magnolia virginiana / Clethra alnifolia Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Swamp Tupelo - Carolina Red Maple - Tuliptree / Sweetbay / Coastal Sweet-pepperbush Swamp Forest
Common Name: Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Nonriverine Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL004428
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This nonriverine swamp forest of the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain has a closed canopy dominated by Nyssa biflora, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, and Liriodendron tulipifera, with scattered Taxodium distichum and Chamaecyparis thyoides. Characteristic subcanopy species include Magnolia virginiana, Asimina triloba, and Persea palustris. Clethra alnifolia patchily dominates the shrub stratum. Herbaceous species in this community include Dryopteris intermedia and Dryopteris carthusiana. The species composition suggests a higher nutrient status than other associations in this alliance.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Examples occur at East Dismal Swamp, North Carolina. This vegetation may have occurred naturally in Virginia at one time, but the Great Dismal Swamp stands that now seem to match it are clearly modified/successional vegetation and treated with the widespread successional type of that region, Acer rubrum var. trilobum - (Nyssa biflora) / Clethra alnifolia - (Persea palustris) Ruderal Wet Forest (CEGL007445).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Basin Swamp & Flatwoods
Group Coastal Plain Hardwood Basin Swamp
Alliance Tupelo Nonriverine Seepage Flat Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Nonriverine Swamp Forest (Poplar-Pawpaw Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Liriodendron tulipifera - Nyssa biflora / Asimina triloba / Dryopteris intermedia subtype
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 1998. Virginia natural community framework, version January 30, 1998. Unpublished document. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Nyssa biflora - Taxodium distichum - Acer rubrum / Clethra alnifolia / Woodwardia areolata Seasonally Flooded Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1998. Comparative wetlands ecology study of the Great Dismal Swamp, Northwest River, and North Landing River in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 98-9. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 181 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Nonriverine Swamp Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Nonriverine Swamp Forest (Poplar-Pawpaw Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.304 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Nonriverine Swamp and Wet Hardwood Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2 (31Jan2001)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Nonriverine swamp forests of the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain have been severely impacted by forestry and agricultural conversion. This particular nonriverine forest type is limited to northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia. All known examples have been impacted by timber removal, and most or all remaining occurrences have hydrologic impacts.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC, VApotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This nonriverine forest type is limited to northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this forest have a closed canopy dominated by Nyssa biflora, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, and Liriodendron tulipifera, with scattered Taxodium distichum and Chamaecyparis thyoides. Characteristic subcanopy species include Magnolia virginiana, Asimina triloba, and Persea palustris. Clethra alnifolia patchily dominates the shrub stratum. Herbaceous species in this community include Dryopteris intermedia and Dryopteris carthusiana. The species composition suggests a higher nutrient status than other associations in this alliance.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M.P. Schafale and A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 01Jul1996
Element Description Author(s): M.P. Schafale and A.S. Weakley
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Jan2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P. 1998. Virginia natural community framework, version January 30, 1998. Unpublished document. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 6 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1998. Comparative wetlands ecology study of the Great Dismal Swamp, Northwest River, and North Landing River in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 98-9. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 181 pp. plus appendices.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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