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Quercus alba - Quercus coccinea - Quercus falcata / Kalmia latifolia - Vaccinium pallidum Forest
Translated Name: White Oak - Scarlet Oak - Southern Red Oak / Mountain Laurel - Blue Ridge Blueberry Forest
Common Name: Appalachian Montane Oak - Hickory Forest (Low-Elevation Xeric Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL007691
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This mixed oak association includes dry, deciduous forests of low elevations (below 915 m [3000 feet]) in the Southern Blue Ridge, associated with sandy, dry soils derived from granitic gneiss and other related acidic substrates. This association is known as a matrix forest type in the area of Brevard, North Carolina, where it occurs on open slopes and broad ridges, in a landscape of a low, rolling plateau. It may extend south into South Carolina. These forests have canopies dominated by Quercus alba, Quercus coccinea, Quercus falcata, Quercus velutina, and sometimes Quercus prinus, although other species can be present, including Pinus echinata, Pinus virginiana, and Pinus rigida. This forest is characterized by having associated species more typical of lower, non-montane areas, such as Quercus falcata, Schizachyrium scoparium, Silphium compositum, Baptisia tinctoria, and Piptochaetium avenaceum, and by the absence of species more typical in mesic, montane oak forests, including Medeola virginiana, Maianthemum racemosum, Thelypteris noveboracensis, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, and Dryopteris intermedia). The shrub stratum can be quite open, with Rhododendron calendulaceum typical. Kalmia latifolia and Vaccinium pallidum are usually present in moderate abundance. Solidago odora var. odora and Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum are typical herb components.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This association was defined based on North Carolina occurrences. More information is needed to better describe this association and define its geographic distribution.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Appalachian Oak / Chestnut Forest
Alliance Eastern Black Oak - White Oak Dry Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Montane Oak--Hickory Forest (Low Dry Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Montane Oak--Hickory Forest (Low Dry Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Montane Oak-Hickory Forest (Low Dry Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.886 Southern Appalachian Oak Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (04Oct2004)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This association is known as a matrix forest type in the area of Brevard, North Carolina, where it occurs on open slopes and broad ridges in a landscape of a low, rolling plateau. It may extend south into South Carolina and Tennessee. It does occur on public lands, but since it is on lower elevations, it would be easy to access for logging and/or conversion to other uses (i.e., pine plantations and development on private land).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GApotentially occurs, NC, SCpotentially occurs, TNpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is known as a matrix forest type in the area of Brevard, North Carolina. It may extend south into South Carolina. Its full range may not be known (status in Tennessee unclear).

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: These forests have canopies dominated by Quercus alba with other oak species including Quercus coccinea, Quercus falcata, Quercus velutina, and sometimes Quercus prinus. Other species can be present, including Pinus echinata, Pinus virginiana, and Pinus rigida. The subcanopy may contain Oxydendrum arboreum. This forest is characterized by having associated species more typical of lower, non-montane areas, such as Quercus falcata, Schizachyrium scoparium, Silphium compositum, Baptisia tinctoria, Piptochaetium avenaceum, and by the absence of species more typical in mesic, montane oak forests (Medeola virginiana, Maianthemum racemosum, Thelypteris noveboracensis, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Dryopteris intermedia). The shrub stratum can be quite open, with Rhododendron calendulaceum typical. Kalmia latifolia and Vaccinium pallidum are usually present in moderate abundance. Solidago odora var. odora and Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum are typical herb components.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus alba G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus coccinea G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus falcata G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Kalmia latifolia G2 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Vaccinium pallidum G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Baptisia tinctoria G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Silphium compositum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Piptochaetium avenaceum G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Schizachyrium scoparium G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis
  (Appalachian White Snakeroot)
G5T3T4  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association includes dry, deciduous forests of low elevations (below 915 m [3000 feet]) in the Southern Blue Ridge, associated with sandy, dry soils derived from granitic gneiss and other related acidic geologies. This association is known as a matrix forest type in the area of Brevard, North Carolina, where it occurs on open slopes and broad ridges, in a landscape of a low, rolling plateau.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M.P. Schafale
Element Description Edition Date: 03Aug2010
Element Description Author(s): M.P. Schafale and M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Oct2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne, mod. C.W. Nordman

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.


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Data last updated: November 2016