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Bolboschoenus maritimus - Atriplex patula - Eleocharis parvula Saline Marsh
Translated Name: Cosmopolitan Bulrush - Spear Saltbush - Dwarf Spikerush Saline Marsh
Common Name: Inland Saline Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL005111
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This inland salt marsh community type is found in scattered locations in the midwestern United States, including Illinois, Michigan, and New York. Stands occur on peat, muck, or mineral soils saturated by sodium- or chlorine-rich groundwater seeping from saline aquifers. These sites are most common along streams or rivers where glacial drift is thin enough to permit brine from deep saline aquifers to remain concentrated and emerge at discrete points. This community is a wetland dominated by tall graminoid plants. The vegetation may be sparse with areas of bare mud. Salt-tolerant species are common in the community. It has a similar environment across its range, but because occurrences are small and widely scattered, each site has a distinct composition. Dominant species vary from marsh to marsh, and eastern sites are richer in halophytic species than western sites. Species that are found across the range of the community are Atriplex patula, Eleocharis parvula, Hibiscus moscheutos, and Bolboschoenus maritimus. In Illinois, Spartina pectinata can be dominant. In Michigan, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. lanceolatum, Schoenoplectus americanus, and Typha latifolia tend to be dominants. In New York, other characteristic plants include Agrostis stolonifera, Leptochloa fusca ssp. fascicularis, and Spergularia salina. Species that are found across the range of the community are Atriplex patula, Eleocharis parvula, Hibiscus moscheutos, and Bolboschoenus maritimus.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: This type puts together several very discrete and isolated saline stands. Floristic similarity needs to be reviewed.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Eastern North American Inland Saline Marsh
Alliance Inland Alkali Bulrush Saline Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Illinois Brackish marsh Equivalent   White and Madany 1978
Michigan Inland Salt Marsh Equivalent   Kost et al. 2007
New York Inland salt marsh Equivalent   Edinger et al. 2002


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Schoenoplectus maritimus - Atriplex patula - Eleocharis parvula Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).
Related Concept Name: Inland Salt Marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Chapman, K. A., D. A. Albert, and G. A. Reese. 1989. Draft descriptions of Michigan's natural community types. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Lansing, MI. 35 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES205.687 Eastern Great Plains Wet Meadow, Prairie and Marsh


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (22Jun1998)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This is a naturally rare community in the Midwest, occurring where saline water emerges at the surface only rarely. Stands can be affected by alterations to hydrology. They may also be invaded by Phragmites australis, which can be fairly salt-tolerant. Many sites in New York have been destroyed or degraded by salt extraction operations, filling, and development (Reschke 1990).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: IL, MI, NY
Canadian Province Distribution: ONpotentially occurs, QCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This inland salt marsh community type is found in scattered locations in the upper midwestern United States in the Great Lakes region, including Illinois, Michigan, and western New York.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southeastern Great Lakes Section
Section Code: 222J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Prairie Division
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Temperate) Province
Province Code: 251 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Till Plains Section
Section Code: 251D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This community is a wetland dominated by tall graminoid plants. The vegetation may be sparse with areas of bare mud. Salt-tolerant species are common in the community. Because occurrences are small and widely scattered, each site tends to have a distinct composition. Dominant species vary from marsh to marsh, and eastern sites are richer in halophytic species than western sites. Species that are found across the range of the community are Atriplex patula, Eleocharis parvula, Hibiscus moscheutos, and Bolboschoenus maritimus (= Scirpus maritimus). In Illinois, Spartina pectinata can be dominant. In Michigan, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. lanceolatum (= Aster lanceolatus var. lanceolatus), Schoenoplectus americanus (= Scirpus americanus), and Typha latifolia tend to be dominants. In New York, other characteristic plants include Agrostis stolonifera, Leptochloa fusca ssp. fascicularis (= Diplachne maritima), and Spergularia salina (= Spergularia marina) (White and Madany 1978, Faust and Roberts 1983, Chapman et al. 1989, Reschke 1990).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Atriplex patula G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Hibiscus moscheutos G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Samolus valerandi ssp. parviflorus G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Spergularia salina G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Symphyotrichum lanceolatum ssp. lanceolatum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. lanceolatum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Agrostis stolonifera G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Bolboschoenus maritimus G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Eleocharis parvula G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Leptochloa fusca ssp. fascicularis G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Schoenoplectus americanus G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Spartina pectinata G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Typha angustifolia G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Typha latifolia G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Vegetation Structure
Stratum Growth Form
Height of Stratum (m)
Cover
Class
%
Min
Cover %
Max
Cover %
Herb (field) Graminoid
 
 
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occurs on peat, muck, or mineral soils saturated by sodium- or chlorine-rich groundwater seeping from saline aquifers. These sites are most common along streams or rivers where glacial drift is thin enough to permit brine from deep saline aquifers to remain concentrated and emerge at discrete points (White and Madany 1978, Chapman et al. 1985, 1989, Reschke 1990).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: These sites may be seasonally flooded (Reschke 1990).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen (2001)
Element Description Edition Date: 03Mar1994
Element Description Author(s): J. Drake, D. Faber-Langendoen, and D. Ambrose
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Jun1998

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Catling, P. M., and S. M. McKay. 1980. Halophytic plants in southern Ontario. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 94:248-258.

  • Chapman, K. A., D. A. Albert, and G. A. Reese. 1989. Draft descriptions of Michigan's natural community types. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Lansing, MI. 35 pp.

  • Chapman, K. A., V. L. Dunevitz, and H. T. Kuhn. 1985. Vegetation and chemical analysis of a salt marsh in Clinton County, Michigan. The Michigan Botanist 24:135-144.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).

  • Faust, M. E., and N. R. Roberts. 1983. The salt plants of Onondaga Lake, Onondaga County, New York. Bartonia 49:20-26.

  • Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. 2007. Natural communities of Michigan: Classification and description. Report No. 2007-21, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 314 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/reports/2007-21_Natural_Communites_of_Michigan_Classification_and_Description.pdf]

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • Muenscher, W. C. 1927. Spartina patens and other saline plants in the Genesee Valley of western New York. Rhodora 29:138-139.

  • Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.

  • Steyermark, J. 1963. Flora of Missouri. University of Iowa Press, Ames.

  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.


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