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Thuja occidentalis - Fraxinus pennsylvanica / Acer pensylvanicum Woodland
Translated Name: Northern White-cedar - Green Ash / Striped Maple Woodland
Common Name: Northern White-cedar Mesic Rocky Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL006508
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association is a northern white-cedar open-canopy woodland known only from scattered locations in northern New England. It occurs on gentle to moderately steep slopes over talus, glacial till, or bedrock, in settings that are not xeric and that may have areas where seepage emerges. Where the underlying bedrock is granitic, the near-coastal location may ameliorate the effects of the acidic substrate to some degree; substrates in other locations appear to have a circumneutral tendency. Canopy closure is variable from closed to quite open. The lower layers are typically sparse, although the herb layer may be locally extensive. The canopy is strongly dominated by Thuja occidentalis. Associated canopy trees include Betula papyrifera, Betula alleghaniensis, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Picea rubens, Pinus strobus, Tsuga canadensis, Abies balsamea, or Acer saccharum. The shrub layer may include Abies balsamea, Acer pensylvanicum, Diervilla lonicera, or Amelanchier spp. The herbaceous layer includes Eurybia macrophylla, Oclemena acuminata, Dryopteris marginalis, Maianthemum canadense, Trientalis borealis, Danthonia spicata, Carex pedunculata, Carex gracillima, and Carex laxiflora. Typical bryophytes include Dicranum spp., Leucobryum glaucum, Pleurozium schreberi, and Hylocomium splendens. This cedar woodland overstory of the association resembles that of Thuja occidentalis / Gaylussacia baccata - Vaccinium angustifolium Woodland (CEGL006411), but the mesic conditions, presence of Fraxinus spp. or Betula alleghaniensis, and lack of a heath layer distinguish this community.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: This association appears distinctive, but is known from only one limited area of the Maine coast and a few poorly documented locations in New Hampshire. More information on upland cedar-dominated woodlands across the species' northeastern and midwestern range might help put this in context, and help determine whether it is a valid separate type or an odd variant of some other conifer woodland.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Laurentian-Acadian Mesic Hardwood - Conifer Forest
Group Laurentian-Acadian Hemlock - White Pine - Hardwood Forest
Alliance Northern White-cedar Acidic Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002451 Thuja occidentalis Cliff Woodland
CEGL006411 Thuja occidentalis / Gaylussacia baccata - Vaccinium angustifolium Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Maine White cedar woodland Broader   Gawler 2002
New York Calcareous talus slope woodland Intersects   Edinger et al. 2002



Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.572 Laurentian-Acadian Calcareous Rocky Outcrop


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (02Jul1999)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ME, NH, NY, VTpotentially occurs
Canadian Province Distribution: NB
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This association is found in northern New England and adjacent Canada.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Fundy Coastal and Interior Section
Section Code: 212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: White Mountain Section
Section Code: M212A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Canopy closure is variable from closed to quite open. The lower layers are typically sparse, although the herb layer may be locally extensive. The canopy is strongly dominated by Thuja occidentalis. Associated canopy trees include Betula papyrifera, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Picea rubens, Pinus strobus, Tsuga canadensis, Abies balsamea, or Acer saccharum. The shrub layer may include Abies balsamea, Acer pensylvanicum, Diervilla lonicera, or Amelanchier spp. The herbaceous layer includes Eurybia macrophylla (= Aster macrophyllus), Dryopteris marginalis, Maianthemum canadense, Trientalis borealis, Danthonia spicata, Carex pedunculata, Carex gracillima, and Carex laxiflora. Typical bryophytes include Dicranum spp., Leucobryum glaucum, Pleurozium schreberi, and Hylocomium splendens.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Fraxinus pennsylvanica GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Thuja occidentalis GNR Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Acer pensylvanicum GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association is a northern white-cedar open-canopy woodland known only from scattered locations in northern New England. It occurs on gentle to moderately steep slopes over talus, glacial till, or occasionally bedrock where seepage emerges. Where the underlying bedrock is granitic, the near-coastal location may ameliorate the effects of the acidic substrate to some degree; substrates in other locations appear to have a circumneutral tendency.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Northern Appalachian Planning Team and L.A. Sneddon
Element Description Edition Date: 27Jan2003
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Küchler, A. W. 1956. Notes on the vegetation of southeastern Mount Desert Island, Maine. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 38:335-392.

  • Lubinski, S., K. Hop, and S. Gawler. 2003. Vegetation Mapping Program: Acadia National Park, Maine. Report produced by U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, and Maine Natural Areas Program in conjunction with M. Story (NPS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator) NPS, Natural Resources Information Division, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and K. Brown (USGS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator), USGS, Center for Biological Informatics and NatureServe. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/ftp/vegmapping/acad/reports/acadrpt.pdf]


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