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Nuphar advena - Nymphaea odorata Aquatic Vegetation
Translated Name: Broadleaf Pond-lily - American White Water-lily Aquatic Vegetation
Common Name: Water-lily Aquatic Wetland
Unique Identifier: CEGL002386
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This rooted aquatic or open marsh community occupies shallow-water depressions, oxbow ponds, backwater sloughs of river floodplains, slow-moving streams, ponds, and small lakes throughout the central and eastern United States. It is dominated by rooted, floating-leaved aquatic species, with both submergent and emergent aquatics also present. Nuphar advena (= Nuphar lutea ssp. advena) and Nymphaea odorata are dominants, either in combination together, or each singly. Other species present include Brasenia schreberi, various Potamogeton and Stuckenia spp., Eleocharis robbinsii and other Eleocharis spp., Polygonum amphibium, Polygonum amphibium var. emersum (= Polygonum coccineum), Sparganium americanum, Lemna spp., Spirodela polyrrhiza, Typha latifolia, and Saururus cernuus. Submerged aquatics more common in the southern part of the range include Cabomba caroliniana, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Heteranthera dubia.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Can occur in mostly natural ponded wetlands as well as artifactual ones such as borrow pits. On the Conecuh National Forest (Alabama), vegetation of this association occurs in Gum Pond and Open Pond as a mix of Nymphaea odorata and Nuphar advena.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 5 - Aquatic Vegetation
Subclass 5.B - Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Formation 5.B.2 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Division 5.B.2.Na - North American Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Macrogroup Eastern North American Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Group Eastern North American Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Alliance Water-lily - Pond-lily Aquatic Vegetation

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002001 Nuphar polysepala Aquatic Vegetation
CEGL004472 Nuphar advena Tidal Marsh
CEGL005258 Equisetum fluviatile - (Eleocharis palustris) Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Nuphar advena - Nymphaea odorata Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Connecticut Variegated yellow pond-lily - American white waterlily (Nuphar advena - Nymphaea odorata) community Equivalent Certain Metzler and Barrett 2006
Delaware Water-lily Aquatic Wetland Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Illinois Marsh (N) Intersects   White and Madany 1978
Illinois Pond (N) Intersects   White and Madany 1978
Indiana Lake - lake Broader   Homoya et al. 1988
Iowa Waterlily Bed Equivalent Certain INAI
Louisiana Submerged/Floating Vascular Vegetation Broader   Smith 1996
Maine Water-lily - Macrophyte Aquatic Bed Broader   Gawler 2002
Maryland Nuphar advena - Nymphaea odorata Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
Massachusetts Shallow Emergent Marsh Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
Missouri Marsh Broader   Nelson 2010
New Hampshire Aquatic Bed Equivalent   Sperduto and Nichols 2004
New Jersey Nuphar advena - Nymphaea odorata Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
New York Deep emergent marsh Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
North Carolina Coastal Plain Semipermanent Impoundment (Open Water Subtype) Finer   Schafale 2012
North Carolina Piedmont/Mountain Semipermanent Impoundment (Open Water Subtype) Intersects   Schafale 2012
Ohio Floating-Leaved Marsh Finer   ONHD unpubl. data
Ohio Floating-Leaved Riverine Community Finer   ONHD unpubl. data
Oklahoma Nuphar lutea herbaceous association Intersects   Hoagland 2000
Oklahoma Nymphaea odorata herbaceous association Intersects   Hoagland 2000
Pennsylvania Spatterdock - Water-lily Emergent Wetland Equivalent   Zimmerman et al. 2012
Tennessee Nuphar advena - Nymphaea odorata Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data
Vermont Deep Broadleaf Marsh Broader   Thompson and Sorenson 2000
Wisconsin Submergent Marsh Broader   WNHI 2011


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Nuphar advena - Nymphaea odorata Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Related Concept Name: Nuphar lutea ssp. advena - Nymphaea odorata Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Delmarva Bay
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Floodplain Pond / Pool
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Freshwater Marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Nelson, P. W. 1985. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Jefferson City. 197 pp. Revised edition, 1987.
Related Concept Name: Inland Emergent Marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Chapman, K. A., D. A. Albert, and G. A. Reese. 1989. Draft descriptions of Michigan's natural community types. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Lansing, MI. 35 pp.
Related Concept Name: L5D2aI1a. Nuphar lutea
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Foti, T., M. Blaney, X. Li, and K. G. Smith. 1994. A classification system for the natural vegetation of Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 48:50-53.
Related Concept Name: Lake Bed
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: MNNHP [Minnesota Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. Minnesota's native vegetation: A key to natural communities. Version 1.5. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program, St. Paul, MN. 110 pp.
Related Concept Name: New England coastal plain pondshore
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Open Water/Aquatic Bed Veg., Natural Impoundment Pond
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.
Related Concept Name: Open water marsh with floating-leaved plants
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: NAP [Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Working Group]. 1998. Northern Appalachian-Boreal Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
Related Concept Name: Small Depression Pond
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Spatterdock - Water Lily Wetland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
Related Concept Name: Submerged Aquatic Water Lily Subtype
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).
Related Concept Name: Submergent/Floating Vascular Vegetation
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.
Related Concept Name: Water-lily - Macrophyte Aquatic Bed
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.594 Laurentian-Acadian Freshwater Marsh
CES201.722 Northern Great Lakes Coastal Marsh
CES202.018 Central Interior Highlands and Appalachian Sinkhole and Depression Pond
CES202.033 Great Lakes Freshwater Estuary and Delta
CES202.694 North-Central Interior Floodplain
CES202.705 South-Central Interior Large Floodplain
CES202.706 South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian
CES202.899 North-Central Interior Freshwater Marsh
CES203.065 Red River Large Floodplain Forest
CES203.488 West Gulf Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.489 East Gulf Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.541 Texas-Louisiana Coastal Prairie Pondshore
CES203.893 Atlantic Coastal Plain Northern Bog
CES205.687 Eastern Great Plains Wet Meadow, Prairie and Marsh


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (15Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: The dominant species in stands of this vegetation are widespread across the eastern and central United States and adjacent Canada. This is not a rare or imperiled vegetation type, even though its occurrence is poorly documented. Stands may occur in natural lakes and ponds or in artificial impoundments.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, AR, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canadian Province Distribution: ON
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This rooted aquatic community occupies shallow, quiet waters throughout the central and eastern United States, extending from Maine to Ontario and Minnesota, south to Oklahoma and east to Georgia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Aroostook Hills and Lowlands Section
Section Code: 212A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Maine-New Brunswick Foothills and Lowlands Section
Section Code: 212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Fundy Coastal and Interior Section
Section Code: 212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Maine Coastal and Embayment Section
Section Code: 212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Great Lakes Section
Section Code: 212H Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Southern Superior Uplands Section
Section Code: 212J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Superior Uplands Section
Section Code: 212K Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 221H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Upper Gulf Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 222C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Shawnee Hills Section
Section Code: 222D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Till Plains, Oak-Hickory Section
Section Code: 222G Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Central Till Plains, Beech-Maple Section
Section Code: 222H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southeastern Great Lakes Section
Section Code: 222J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southwestern Great Lakes Morainal Section
Section Code: 222K Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North Central U.S. Driftless and Escarpment Section
Section Code: 222L Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Arkansas Valley Section
Section Code: 231G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Florida Coastal Lowlands (Western) Section
Section Code: 232D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Louisiana Coast Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 232E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Lower Mississippi Riverine Forest Province
Province Code: 234 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Mississippi Alluvial Basin Section
Section Code: 234A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Prairie Division
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Temperate) Province
Province Code: 251 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Dissected Till Plains Section
Section Code: 251C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Till Plains Section
Section Code: 251D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Osage Plains Section
Section Code: 251E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: White Mountain Section
Section Code: M212A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Green, Taconic, Berkshire Mountain Section
Section Code: M212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Catskill Mountain Section
Section Code: M212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This community is dominated by rooted, floating-leaved aquatic species, with both submergent and emergent aquatics also present. Nuphar advena (= Nuphar lutea ssp. advena) and Nymphaea odorata are dominants, either in combination together, or each singly. Other species present include Brasenia schreberi, various Potamogeton and Stuckenia spp., Eleocharis robbinsii and other Eleocharis spp., Polygonum amphibium, Polygonum amphibium var. emersum (= Polygonum coccineum), Sparganium americanum, Lemna spp., Spirodela polyrrhiza, Typha latifolia, and Saururus cernuus (Anderson 1982, G. Fleming pers. comm.). Submerged aquatic species more common in the southern part of the range include Cabomba caroliniana, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Heteranthera dubia. This broadly conceived type may include ponds, or zones of ponds, dominated by Nymphaea odorata, with or without Nuphar advena.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Nuphar lutea ssp. advena G4 Aquatic herb Floating aquatic  
 
 
Nymphaea odorata G4 Aquatic herb Floating aquatic  
 
 

Vegetation Structure Summary: This community is dominated by rooted, floating-leaved aquatic species, with both submergent and emergent aquatics also present.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occupies shallow-water depressions, oxbow ponds, sluggish streams, and backwater sloughs of river floodplains, ponds (natural and artificial), and small lakes. In pools and slow-flowing stretches of river, at Obed River (TN), Nuphar advena is rooted in sandy substrate (Schmalzer and DeSelm 1982).


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
Element Description Edition Date: 10Mar2009
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen, C.W. Nordman, S.C. Gawler and M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.

  • Anderson, D. M. 1982. Plant communities of Ohio: A preliminary classification and description. Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus, OH. 182 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Chapman, K. A., D. A. Albert, and G. A. Reese. 1989. Draft descriptions of Michigan's natural community types. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Lansing, MI. 35 pp.

  • Chastain, R. A., M.A. Struckhoff, K. W. Grabner, E. D. Stroh, H. He, D. R. Larsen, T. A. Nigh, and J. Drake. 2006. Mapping vegetation communities in Ozark National Scenic Riverways: Final technical report to the National Park Service. Open-File Report 2006-1354. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA. 90 pp. plus appendices.

  • Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Eichelberger, B. 2011a. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Spatterdock - Water-lily Emergent Wetland Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=15996] (accessed February 13, 2012)

  • FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 1990. Guide to the natural communities of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory and Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee. 111 pp.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2007. Ecological communities of the Potomac Gorge in Virginia: Composition, floristics, and environmental dynamics. Natural Heritage Technical Report 07-12. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 341 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Foti, T., M. Blaney, X. Li, and K. G. Smith. 1994. A classification system for the natural vegetation of Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 48:50-53.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., R. E. Zaremba, and B. Agius. 2005. Vegetation mapping at Minute Man National Historical Park. Draft final report. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--XXXX/XXX. National Park Service. Philadelphia, PA.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Gawler, S. C., and P. S. Bowman. 2012. Vegetation classification and mapping at Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site, New Hampshire. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2012/584.1. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Hoagland, B. 2000. The vegetation of Oklahoma: A classification for landscape mapping and conservation planning. The Southwestern Naturalist 45(4):385-420.

  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.

  • Hop, K., S. Lubinski, J. Dieck, J. Drake, and S. Menard. 2009. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. USDI U.S. Geological Survey, La Crosse, WI, and NatureServe, St. Paul, MN. 312 pp.

  • Hop, K., S. Lubinski, and S. Menard. 2005. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program, Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa. USDI U.S. Geological Survey, La Crosse, WI. 202 pp.

  • INAI [Iowa Natural Areas Inventory]. No date. Vegetation classification of Iowa. Iowa Natural Areas Inventory, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines.

  • LNHP [Louisiana Natural Heritage Program]. 2009. Natural communities of Louisiana. Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, Louisiana Department of Wildlife & Fisheries, Baton Rouge. 46 pp. [http://www.wlf.louisiana.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/page_wildlife/6776-Rare%20Natural%20Communities/LA_NAT_COM.pdf]

  • Lubinski, S., K. Hop, and S. Gawler. 2003. Vegetation Mapping Program: Acadia National Park, Maine. Report produced by U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, and Maine Natural Areas Program in conjunction with M. Story (NPS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator) NPS, Natural Resources Information Division, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and K. Brown (USGS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator), USGS, Center for Biological Informatics and NatureServe. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/ftp/vegmapping/acad/reports/acadrpt.pdf]

  • MNNHP [Minnesota Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. Minnesota's native vegetation: A key to natural communities. Version 1.5. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program, St. Paul, MN. 110 pp.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • NAP [Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Working Group]. 1998. Northern Appalachian-Boreal Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nelson, P. 2010. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Conservation, Jefferson City.

  • Nelson, P. W. 1985. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Jefferson City. 197 pp. Revised edition, 1987.

  • Nordman, C., M. Russo, and L. Smart. 2011. Vegetation types of the Natchez Trace Parkway, based on the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe Central Databases (International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications). Arlington, VA. Data current as of 11 April 2011. 548 pp.

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Penfound, W. T. 1953. Plant communities of Oklahoma lakes. Ecology 34:561-583.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schmalzer, P. A., and H. R. DeSelm. 1982. Vegetation, endangered and threatened plants, critical plant habitats and vascular flora of the Obed Wild and Scenic River. Unpublished report. USDI National Park Service, Obed Wild and Scenic River. 2 volumes. 369 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2001. Classification of natural communities of Massachusetts. September 2001 draft. Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • TNHS [Texas Natural History Survey]. No date. Unpublished data. Texas Natural History Survey, The Nature Conservancy, San Antonio.

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2000. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.

  • Thompson, E., and J. Jenkins. 1992. Summary of field data from Minuteman National Park plant communities study. A report prepared under a contract with the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program for the National Park Service. 39 pp.

  • WNHI [Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory]. No date. Vegetation classification of Wisconsin and unpublished data. Wisconsin Natural Heritage Program, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison.

  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2003. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 160 pp.

  • Zanoni, T. A., P. G. Risser, and I. H. Butler. 1979. Natural areas for Oklahoma. Oklahoma Natural Heritage Program, Norman. 72 pp.

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]


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