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Cornus sericea - Salix spp. - (Rosa palustris) Shrub Swamp
Translated Name: Red-osier Dogwood - Willow species - (Swamp Rose) Shrub Swamp
Common Name: Red-osier Dogwood - Willow Midwest Shrub Swamp
Unique Identifier: CEGL002186
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This dogwood - willow shrub swamp community is found in the upper midwestern region of the United States and Canada. Stands are found along streams and lakes, or in upland depressions. Hydrology is variable but is typically seasonally flooded. Soils are wet, organic, and minerotrophic, with either highly decomposed peat or fine mineral soils. The vegetation is dominated by tall shrubs between 1 and 3 m tall, with at least 25% cover, and often very dense (>60% cover). More open stands may have high graminoid cover. Trees may be scattered but cover less than 25%. Composition of the shrub layer is quite diverse, primarily due to the diversity of Salix spp., which collectively share dominance with Cornus sericea. Willow species include Salix bebbiana, Salix discolor, Salix eriocephala, Salix interior, Salix fragilis, and Salix petiolaris. Other shrub associates include Cephalanthus occidentalis (southeastward), Cornus amomum, Ribes americanum, Rosa palustris (more common eastward), Rosa blanda and Rosa woodsii var. woodsii (more common westward), Rubus pubescens (northward), Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus, Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis, Spiraea alba, and Viburnum lentago. Woody vines present include Clematis virginiana, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Toxicodendron radicans. Characteristic herbs include Asclepias incarnata, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. lanceolatum, Calamagrostis canadensis, Eutrochium maculatum, Glyceria striata, Impatiens capensis, Lycopus americanus, Lycopus uniflorus, Phalaris arundinacea, Solidago gigantea, and Thalictrum dasycarpum. A variety of sedges may dominate more open stands, including Carex lacustris and Carex stricta. Tree species include Acer rubrum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Ulmus americana.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: The closely related shrub meadow type is Cornus sericea - Salix (bebbiana, discolor, petiolaris) / Calamagrostis stricta Shrub Swamp (CEGL002187), with which this type intergrades, and which generally has a more open shrub cover (25-50% cover). It's conceivable that the two types could be combined. It is also possible that a number of different Salix and Cornus shrub swamp types could be recognized with further study. A boreal/subboreal type may also be needed (e.g., Harris et al. 1996). Rich shrub fens, typically on a more peaty substrate or with calcareous indicators overlap to some degree with this type, but are a separate group (e.g., Cornus amomum - Salix spp. - Toxicodendron vernix - Rhamnus lanceolata Fen (CEGL005087) and Cornus sericea - Cornus amomum - Aronia melanocarpa - Viburnum lentago Fen (CEGL005088)). In Ontario, a coarsely defined type, Mixed Deciduous Shrub Swamp (CEGL005086), covers a number of more locally dominant species recorded there, e.g., shrub swamps dominated by any of the following: Acer spicatum, Lindera benzoin, Viburnum dentatum, Viburnum lentago (Bakowsky and Lee 1996, Lee et al. 1998). In New York, this type may occur on the Great Lakes plain.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Midwest Wet Prairie, Wet Meadow & Shrub Swamp
Alliance Midwest Mixed Shrub Swamp

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002187 Cornus sericea - Salix (bebbiana, discolor, petiolaris) / Calamagrostis stricta Shrub Swamp
CEGL002385 Symplocarpus foetidus - Mixed Forbs Seep
CEGL005086 Mixed Deciduous Shrub Swamp
CEGL005087 Cornus amomum - Salix spp. - Toxicodendron vernix - Rhamnus lanceolata Fen
CEGL005088 Cornus sericea - Cornus amomum - Aronia melanocarpa - Viburnum lentago Fen
CEGL005228 Chamaedaphne calyculata - Myrica gale / Carex lasiocarpa Fen
CEGL006576 Cornus (amomum, sericea) - Viburnum dentatum - Rosa multiflora Ruderal Shrub Swamp



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Illinois Shrub swamp Broader   White and Madany 1978
Indiana Wetland - swamp shrub Broader   Homoya et al. 1988
Michigan Southern Shrub-carr Broader   Chapman et al. 1989
Minnesota Seepage Meadow/Carr; Aquatic Sedge Subtype Broader   Minnesota DNR 2005
New York Shrub swamp Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
Ohio Mixed shrub swamp Broader   ONHD unpubl. data
Wisconsin Shrub-carr Broader   WNHI 2011


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Cornus sericea - Salix spp. - (Rosa palustris) Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).
Related Concept Name: Shrub Carr
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Curtis, J. T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin: An ordination of plant communities. Reprinted in 1987. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 657 pp.
Related Concept Name: Shrub Swamps
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.
Related Concept Name: Willow Swamp
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: MNNHP [Minnesota Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. Minnesota's native vegetation: A key to natural communities. Version 1.5. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program, St. Paul, MN. 110 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES103.588 Eastern Boreal Floodplain
CES103.589 Boreal Ice-Scour Rivershore
CES201.582 Laurentian-Acadian Wet Meadow-Shrub Swamp
CES202.701 North-Central Interior Wet Meadow-Shrub Swamp
CES205.687 Eastern Great Plains Wet Meadow, Prairie and Marsh


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (03Oct1996)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: IL, IN, MI, MN, NY, OH, WI
Canadian Province Distribution: ON, QCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This dogwood - willow shrubland swamp is found in the upper midwestern region of the United States and adjacent Canada, ranging from Minnesota east to western New York and Ontario, south to Illinois and Indiana.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Great Lakes Section
Section Code: 212H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Superior Uplands Section
Section Code: 212J Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Western Superior Uplands Section
Section Code: 212K Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Superior Uplands Section
Section Code: 212L Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Northern Minnesota and Ontario Section
Section Code: 212M Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Northern Minnesota Drift and Lake Plains Section
Section Code: 212N Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southeastern Great Lakes Section
Section Code: 222J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southwestern Great Lakes Morainal Section
Section Code: 222K Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North Central U.S. Driftless and Escarpment Section
Section Code: 222L Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Minnesota and Northeast Iowa Morainal Section
Section Code: 222M Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lake Modified Till Section
Section Code: 222N Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Prairie Division
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Temperate) Province
Province Code: 251 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North Central U.S. Morainal and Till Plains Section
Section Code: 251B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Dissected Till Plains Section
Section Code: 251C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation is dominated by tall shrubs between 1 and 3 m tall, with at least 25% cover, and often very dense (>60% cover). More open stands may have high graminoid cover. Trees may be scattered, but cover less than 25%. Composition of the shrub layer is quite diverse, primarily due to the diversity of Salix spp., which collectively share dominance with Cornus sericea. Willow species include Salix bebbiana, Salix discolor, Salix eriocephala, Salix interior, Salix fragilis, and Salix petiolaris. Other shrubs associates include Cephalanthus occidentalis (southeastward), Cornus amomum, Ribes americanum, Rosa palustris (more common eastward), Rosa blanda and Rosa woodsii var. woodsii (= Rosa macounii) (more common westward), Rubus pubescens (northward), Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (= Rubus strigosus), Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (= Sambucus canadensis), Spiraea alba, and Viburnum lentago. Woody vines present include Clematis virginiana, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Toxicodendron radicans. Characteristic herbs include Asclepias incarnata, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. lanceolatum (= Aster simplex), Calamagrostis canadensis, Eutrochium maculatum (= Eupatorium maculatum), Glyceria striata (= Glyceria nervata), Impatiens capensis (= Impatiens biflora), Lycopus americanus, Lycopus uniflorus, Phalaris arundinacea, Solidago gigantea, and Thalictrum dasycarpum. A variety of sedges may dominate more open stands, including Carex lacustris and Carex stricta. Tree species include Acer rubrum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Ulmus americana (Curtis 1959, White and Madany 1978, Chapman et al. 1989, Reschke 1990, MNNHP 1993, Harris et al. 1996).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Cornus sericea G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Rosa palustris G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Salix bebbiana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Salix candida G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Salix discolor G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Salix eriocephala G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Salix exigua G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Salix fragilis G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Salix petiolaris G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Asclepias incarnata G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Calamagrostis canadensis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Clematis virginiana G5 Liana Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Stands are found along streams and lakes, or in upland depressions. Hydrology is variable, but is typically seasonally flooded. Soils are wet, organic, and minerotrophic, with either highly decomposed peat or fine mineral soils (Curtis 1959, Harris et al. 1996).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Shrub swamps may naturally succeed herbaceous wet meadows as part of successional series in lakes and ponds. They may also originate from clearing of forested swamps (Curtis 1959), or draining of wet meadows (MNNHP 1993). Such open herbaceous meadows may first succeed to a shrubby meadow before becoming a dense shrub swamp. Infrequent fires may have maintained shrub swamps in the western part of the range, preventing tree canopy closure (MNNHP 1993).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen (2001)
Element Description Edition Date: 08Dec1998
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Oct1996

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.

  • Bakowsky, W. D., and H. T. Lee. 1996. Vegetation communities of southern Ontario (draft). Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre and Southern Region STTU, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario. 87 pp.

  • Borowitz, V. A., and A. G. Stephenson. 1985. Fruit composition and patterns of fruit dispersal of two Cornus spp. Oecologia 67:435-441.

  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Chapman, K. A., D. A. Albert, and G. A. Reese. 1989. Draft descriptions of Michigan's natural community types. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Lansing, MI. 35 pp.

  • Curtis, J. T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin: An ordination of plant communities. Reprinted in 1987. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 657 pp.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).

  • Harris, A. G., S. C. McMurray, P. W. C. Uhlig, J. K. Jeglum, R. F. Foster, and G. D. Racey. 1996. Field guide to the wetland ecosystem classification for northwestern Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Northwest Science and Technology, Thunder Bay, Ontario. Field guide FG-01. 74 pp. plus appendix.

  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.

  • Hop, K., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Lew-Smith, N. Aaseng, and S. Lubinski. [1999]. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. USDI U.S. Geological Survey, La Crosse, WI. 210 pp.

  • Hop, K., S. Lubinski, J. Dieck, J. Drake, and S. Menard. 2009. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. USDI U.S. Geological Survey, La Crosse, WI, and NatureServe, St. Paul, MN. 312 pp.

  • Hop, K., S. Menard, J. Drake, S. Lubinski, and J. Dieck. 2010c. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan. Natural Resource Report NPS/GLKN/NRR-2010/201. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. 358 pp.

  • Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. 2007. Natural communities of Michigan: Classification and description. Report No. 2007-21, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 314 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/reports/2007-21_Natural_Communites_of_Michigan_Classification_and_Description.pdf]

  • Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.

  • MNNHP [Minnesota Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. Minnesota's native vegetation: A key to natural communities. Version 1.5. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program, St. Paul, MN. 110 pp.

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • Minnesota DNR [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources]. 2003-2005a. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota. Three volumes: The Laurentian Mixed Forest Province (2003), The Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province (2005c), The Prairie Parkland and Tallgrass Aspen Parklands provinces (2005b). Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

  • Minnesota DNR [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources]. 2003. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota: The Laurentian Mixed Forest Province. Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • ONHIC [Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre]. 2018. Unpublished data. Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada.

  • Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.

  • WDNR [Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources]. 2015. The ecological landscapes of Wisconsin: An assessment of ecological resources and a guide to planning sustainable management. PUB-SS-1131 2015. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. [http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/landscapes/Book.html]

  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.


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