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Carex aquatilis Wet Meadow
Translated Name: Water Sedge Wet Meadow
Unique Identifier: CEGL001802
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This common, widespread herbaceous vegetation occurs as large, mesic meadows in high montane valleys or as narrow strips bordering ponds and streams at lower elevations throughout the western U.S. It occurs in a variety of environmental settings in the montane and subalpine zones. Some of the largest expanses occur in broad, low-gradient valleys where large snowmelt-fed swales and slopes dominate the landscape. It can also grow in fine sediments at the margins of lakes and beaver ponds. Presence of Carex aquatilis typically indicates wet soils with high organic matter or histic epipedons. This plant association is characterized by a dense rhizomatous meadow of Carex aquatilis (10-80% cover), usually accompanied by a few other graminoids species such as Calamagrostis canadensis, Deschampsia cespitosa, Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis (= Juncus balticus), and Poa palustris. Eleocharis quinqueflora can be abundant on organic substrates at high elevations. Woody species rarely occur in these sites. A clear dominance by Carex aquatilis and low cover of Carex utriculata or Pedicularis groenlandica set this plant association apart from closely related types.



Classification

Classification Confidence: High
Classification Comments: This association is defined as a PNV vegetation type. If it were renamed as a dominance type, the species would include Carex utriculata. This association (CEGL001802) is distinguished from Carex aquatilis - Carex utriculata Wet Meadow (CEGL001803) by the dominance of Carex aquatilis. If Carex utriculata is present, it is no more than one-third of the total cover.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Western North American Montane-Subalpine-Boreal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Vancouverian-Rocky Mountain Montane Wet Meadow & Marsh
Alliance Water Sedge - Northwest Territory Sedge - Tufted Hairgrass Wet Meadow

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL001562 Carex utriculata Wet Meadow
CEGL001803 Carex aquatilis - Carex utriculata Wet Meadow
CEGL001811 Carex limosa Fen
CEGL001826 Carex aquatilis var. dives Fen



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Carex aquatilis Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Montana Carex aquatilis Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain MTNHP 2002
New Mexico Carex aquatilis-Carex muricata CT Finer   Muldavin et al. 2000
New Mexico Carex aquatilis-Eleocharis palustris CT Finer Certain Muldavin et al. 2000
New Mexico Carex aquatilis-Equisetum laevigatum CT Finer Certain Muldavin et al. 2000
New Mexico Carex aquatilis-Scirpus pungens CT Finer Certain Muldavin et al. 2000
New Mexico Deschampsia cespitosa - Carex aquatilis Grassland Finer Certain NHNM unpubl. data
Oregon Carex aquatilis var. aquatilis Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis - Carex utriculata Vegetation Type
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Achuff, P. L., R. L. McNeil, M. L. Coleman, C. Wallis and C. Wershler. 2002. Ecological land classification of Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. Volume I: Integrated resource description. Parks Canada, Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. 226 pp.
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 1987. Riparian zone associations - Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema national forests. Technical Paper 279-87. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 171 pp.
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Sawyer, J. O., T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Evens. 2009. A manual of California vegetation. Second edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento CA. 1300 pp.
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 1993. Riparian plant associations on the national forests of eastern Washington - Draft version 1. USDA Forest Service, Colville National Forest, Colville, WA. 203 pp.
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis Community Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Cooper, D. J., and T. R. Cottrell. 1990. Classification of riparian vegetation in the northern Colorado Front Range. Unpublished report prepared for The Nature Conservancy, Colorado Field Office, Boulder. 115 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Girard, M., D. L. Wheeler, and S. B. Mills. 1997. Classification of riparian communities on the Bighorn National Forest. R2-RR-97-02. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Sheridan, WY. 308 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Manning, M. E., and W. G. Padgett. 1995. Riparian community type classification for Humboldt and Toiyabe national forests, Nevada and eastern California. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 306 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985a. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 78 pp.
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis Habitat Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hansen, P. L., S. W. Chadde, and R. D. Pfister. 1988b. Riparian dominance types of Montana. University of Montana Miscellaneous Publication 49. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Missoula. 411 pp.
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., D. Cooper, K. Decker, D. Culver, and G. Kittel. 2003b. Statewide wetlands classification and characterization: Wetland plant associations of Colorado. Prepared for Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Denver, by Colorado Natural Heritage Program, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 79 pp. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/documents/2003/wetland_classification_final_report_2003.pdf]
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis Plant Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Sanderson, J., and S. Kettler. 1996. A preliminary wetland vegetation classification for a portion of Colorado's west slope. Report prepared for Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Denver, CO, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region VIII, Denver, CO. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Crawford, R. C. 2003. Riparian vegetation classification of the Columbia Basin, Washington. Natural Heritage Report 2003-03. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Washington Department of Natural Resources, Olympia. 98 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis var. aquatilis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis var. aquatilis (C. aquatilis) Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis var. aquatilis Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.
Related Concept Name: Carex aquatilis-Carex aquatilis Habitat Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Mattson, D. J. 1984. Classification and environmental relationships of wetland vegetation in central Yellowstone National Park. Unpublished thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow. 409 pp.
Related Concept Name: Water sedge (Carex aquatilis) Plant Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, and J. Sanderson. 1999a. A classification of the riparian plant associations of the Rio Grande and Closed Basin watersheds, Colorado. Unpublished report prepared by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, and M. Damm. 1997a. A classification of the riparian vegetation of the South Platte Basin (and part of Republican River Basin), Colorado. Submitted to Colorado Department of Natural Resources and the Environmental Protection Agency, Region VIII. Prepared by Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES200.998 Temperate Pacific Subalpine-Montane Wet Meadow
CES303.675 Western Great Plains Open Freshwater Depression Wetland
CES306.812 Rocky Mountain Alpine-Montane Wet Meadow


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (01Feb1996)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AZpotentially occurs, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Canadian Province Distribution: AB
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This association is common and located in mountainous areas throughout the western U.S. and Canada.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division
Province Name: Colorado Plateau Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 313 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Grand Canyon Lands Section
Section Code: 313A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Division
Province Name: Great Plains-Palouse Dry Steppe Province
Province Code: 331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Glaciated Plains Section
Section Code: 331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Plains Section
Section Code: 331E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Great Plains Section
Section Code: 331F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert and Desert Province
Province Code: 341 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Canyon Lands Section
Section Code: 341B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bighorn Basin Section
Section Code: 342A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Basin and Range Section
Section Code: 342B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Owyhee Uplands Section
Section Code: 342C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Snake River Basalts Section
Section Code: 342D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Basin and Hills Section
Section Code: 342F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Greater Green River Basin Section
Section Code: 342G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Regime Mountains
Province Name: Cascade Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Eastern Cascades Section
Section Code: M242C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Mediterranean Regime Mountains
Province Name: Sierran Steppe - Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M261 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Klamath Mountains Section
Section Code: M261A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Cascades Section
Section Code: M261D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Sierra Nevada Section
Section Code: M261E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Modoc Plateau Section
Section Code: M261G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Yellowstone Highlands Section
Section Code: M331A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bighorn Mountains Section
Section Code: M331B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Overthrust Mountains Section
Section Code: M331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Parks and Ranges Section
Section Code: M331F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: South-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Parks and Ranges Section
Section Code: M331I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Wind River Mountain Section
Section Code: M331J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Idaho Batholith Section
Section Code: M332A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Valley Section
Section Code: M332B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Rocky Mountain Front Section
Section Code: M332C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Belt Mountains Section
Section Code: M332D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Beaverhead Mountains Section
Section Code: M332E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Challis Volcanics Section
Section Code: M332F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Mountains Section
Section Code: M332G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Northern Rocky Mountain Forest - Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M333 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Okanogan Highlands Section
Section Code: M333A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Flathead Valley Section
Section Code: M333B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Rockies Section
Section Code: M333C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Mountains Section
Section Code: M333D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Regime Mountains
Province Name: Nevada-Utah Mountains Semi-Desert - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M341 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Great Basin Mountains Section
Section Code: M341A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Tavaputs Plateau Section
Section Code: M341B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Utah High Plateaus and Mountains Section
Section Code: M341C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This plant association is characterized by a dense rhizomatous meadow of Carex aquatilis (10-80% cover), usually accompanied by a few other graminoids species such as Calamagrostis canadensis (1-40%) or Deschampsia cespitosa (1-16%), Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis (= Juncus balticus), and Poa palustris. Eleocharis quinqueflora can be abundant on organic substrates (1-49% cover) at high elevations. Carex utriculata (1-20% cover) may be present. When present, Carex utriculata is usually not more than one-third the cover of Carex aquatilis cover. If it is more than that, the stand may be classified as Carex aquatilis - Carex utriculata Wet Meadow (CEGL001803) or Carex utriculata Wet Meadow (CEGL001562). Forbs are often present, although sometimes inconspicuous (generally <10%, but can be as high as 40%). Species include Epilobium spp., Pedicularis groenlandica, Caltha leptosepala, Menyanthes trifoliata, Cardamine cordifolia, and Mertensia ciliata. Shrubs and trees have been observed invading the wetland from surrounding areas, including Betula nana, Salix maccalliana, and Picea engelmannii.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Salix arizonica G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Carex aquatilis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Salix arizonica
  (Arizona Willow)
G2G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This plant association occurs in a variety of valley types, but the largest expanses occur in broad, low-gradient valleys where large snowmelt-fed swales and slopes dominate the landscape. It can also grow in fine sediments at the margins of lakes and beaver ponds. These palustrine wetlands have a range of hydrologic regimes, though all stands are saturated for a significant enough period during the growing season to cause a build up of organic material in the soil. Soils are organic mucks and peats and are poorly to very poorly drained.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Overgrazing by livestock can dry the site, increase non-native grass cover, and reduce the vigor of root structure. The wet and often saturated soils of this plant association are also vulnerable to compaction by livestock and heavy equipment. In order to maintain productivity and vigor of the plants and prevent damage to the soils, livestock grazing should be deferred until soils dry (Hansen et al. 1995). Deferred and rest rotation grazing systems are recommended for maintaining the vigor and productivity of this plant association. Rest periods are recommended in order to provide time for plant establishment. Late summer and fall grazing is not recommended because if there are adjacent willows, they are vulnerable to pruning damage due to limited regrowth before the end of the growing season (Kovalchik and Elmore 1992, Hansen et al. 1995).

Beaver activity in the vicinity of this plant association is important for maintaining the health of the riparian ecosystem. Beaver dams aid in controlling channel downcutting, streambank erosion, and downstream movement of sediment. Beaver dams raise the water table and provide water for hydrophytic plants including willows and sedges. The trapping of sediment behind beaver dams, along with plant reproduction, raises the channel bed and creates a wetland environment. Land managers should consider maintaining beaver activity in an area versus their removal (Hansen et al. 1995).

Burning of this plant association temporarily increases the productivity of Carex utriculata and Carex aquatilis. However, livestock grazing needs to be eliminated for the year prior to burning and for at least 2-3 years after burning. This is necessary in order to keep livestock from damaging young, palatable regrowth and to allow for root reserve build up. Prescribed burning is also an effective method of rejuvenating decadent clumps of willows. The willow species in this plant association vigorously sprout following quick, hot fires. Slow-burning fires can actually damage the plants (Hansen et al. 1995).

Presence of Carex utriculata may indicate the site has progressed from the more wet Carex utriculata community to the current less mesic conditions, and may become dominated by Salix planifolia or Salix wolfii (Youngblood et al. 1985a). Wilson (1969) reports that Carex aquatilis associations trap sediment from overbank flows which forms a clay pan, eventually raising the water table. This process drives retrogressive succession, and a plant association dominated by Carex utriculata takes over on these sites (Wilson 1969).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 03Feb2004
Element Description Author(s): G. Kittel

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • ANHIC [Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre]. No date. Community database files. Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, Parks and Protected Areas Division, Alberta Community Development, Edmonton.

  • Achuff, P. L., R. L. McNeil, M. L. Coleman, C. Wallis and C. Wershler. 2002. Ecological land classification of Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. Volume I: Integrated resource description. Parks Canada, Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. 226 pp.

  • Baker, W. L. 1983c. Natural vegetation of part of northwestern Moffat County, Colorado. Unpublished report prepared for the State of Colorado Natural Areas Program, Department of Natural Resources, Denver by Colorado Natural Heritage Inventory, Denver.

  • Baker, W. L. 1984a. A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist 44(4):647-676.

  • Baker, W. L., and S. C. Kennedy. 1985. Presettlement vegetation of part of northwestern Moffat County, Colorado, described from remnants. Great Basin Naturalist 45(4):747-777.

  • Bierly, K. F. 1972. Meadow and fen vegetation in Big Meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park. Unpublished thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 102 pp.

  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Briggs, G. M., and J. A. MacMahon. 1983. Alpine and subalpine wetland plant communities of the Uinta Mountains, Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 43(4):523-530.

  • Bunin, J. E. 1975c. The vegetation of the west slope of the Park Range, Colorado. Unpublished dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder. 235 pp.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2006-2017. Tracked natural plant communities. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/tracking/communities.html].

  • Carsey, K., D. Cooper, K. Decker, D. Culver, and G. Kittel. 2003b. Statewide wetlands classification and characterization: Wetland plant associations of Colorado. Prepared for Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Denver, by Colorado Natural Heritage Program, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 79 pp. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/documents/2003/wetland_classification_final_report_2003.pdf]

  • Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.

  • Christy, J. A. 2013. Wet meadow plant associations, Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Harney County, Oregon. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Portland State University, Portland.

  • Cogan, D., K. Varga, and G. Kittel. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. Final Project Report 2002-2005 Vegetation Mapping Project. Technical Memorandum 8260-06-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 87 pp. plus Appendixes A-F.

  • Cooper, D. J., and T. R. Cottrell. 1990. Classification of riparian vegetation in the northern Colorado Front Range. Unpublished report prepared for The Nature Conservancy, Colorado Field Office, Boulder. 115 pp.

  • Cox, C. F. 1933. Alpine plant succession on James Peak, Colorado. Ecological Monographs 3:299-372.

  • Crawford, R. C. 2003. Riparian vegetation classification of the Columbia Basin, Washington. Natural Heritage Report 2003-03. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Washington Department of Natural Resources, Olympia. 98 pp. plus appendices.

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.

  • Giese, T. G. 1975. The ecology of the Middle Blue River Valley, Summit County, Colorado, with an analysis of modifications due to powerline construction. Unpublished thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder. 109 pp.

  • Girard, M., D. L. Wheeler, and S. B. Mills. 1997. Classification of riparian communities on the Bighorn National Forest. R2-RR-97-02. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Sheridan, WY. 308 pp.

  • Hall, F. C. 1973. Plant communities of the Blue Mountains in eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. R6 Area Guide 3-1. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 62 pp.

  • Hall, H. H. 1971. Ecology of a subalpine meadow of the Aquarius Plateau, Garfield and Wayne counties, Utah. Unpublished dissertation, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • Hansen, P. L., S. W. Chadde, and R. D. Pfister. 1988b. Riparian dominance types of Montana. University of Montana Miscellaneous Publication 49. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Missoula. 411 pp.

  • Hess, K., and C. H. Wasser. 1982. Grassland, shrubland, and forest habitat types of the White River-Arapaho National Forest. Unpublished final report 53-82 FT-1-19. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 335 pp.

  • Hop, K., M. Reid, J. Dieck, S. Lubinski, and S. Cooper. 2007. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, WI. 131 pp. plus Appendices A-L.

  • Hopkins, W. E. 1979a. Plant associations of the Fremont National Forest. Technical Report R6-ECOL-79-004. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Jankovsky-Jones, M., S. K. Rust, and R. K. Moseley. 1999. Riparian reference areas in Idaho: A catalog of plant associations and conservation sites. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-20. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 141 pp.

  • Johnson, C. G., Jr., and S. A. Simon. 1987. Plant associations of the Wallowa-Snake Province Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. Technical Paper R6-ECOL-TP-255A-86. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. 399 pp. plus appendices.

  • Johnson, K. R. 1932a. Plant ecology of a glacial lake. Journal of the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science 1(4):13 (Abstract).

  • Johnson, K. R. 1932b. Ecology of a glacial lake in central Colorado. Unpublished thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder. 30 pp.

  • Johnson, K. R. 1936. Ecology of a glacial lake in central Colorado. University of Colorado Studies 23(3):235-243.

  • Johnson, K. R. 1939. Plant ecology of northwestern Colorado lakes and surrounding areas. Unpublished dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder. 138 pp.

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