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Salicornia (virginica, bigelovii, maritima) - Spartina alterniflora Herbaceous Vegetation
Translated Name: (Virginia Glasswort, Dwarf Saltwort, Slender Grasswort) - Smooth Cordgrass Herbaceous Vegetation
Common Name: Salt Panne (Salicornia Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL004308
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association represents tidally flooded hypersaline flats or very shallow depressions (pannes) dominated by succulents and other halophytic herbs, including Salicornia virginica, Salicornia bigelovii, Salicornia maritima, and stunted Spartina alterniflora, that occur in salt marshes of the Atlantic Coast. Vegetation of this association tends to develop in shallow depressions within high or salt marshes where drainage is poor. The depressions are regularly to irregularly flooded by high tides, but as the water evaporates during low tide, the salinity concentration increases forming "salt pannes." Formation of the pannes may result from ice-scouring, rafting flotsam, peat compaction, mosquito ditch levees, or erosion of tidal creek banks, which create small, sparsely vegetated to unvegetated impoundments. Bare peat and/or mucky soils are prevalent (up to 85% bare soils). Total vegetative cover is variable in pannes, from near total absence of vascular plants to a dense cover of Salicornia virginica, Salicornia bigelovii, Salicornia maritima, or Spartina alterniflora (short form). Common associates include Limonium carolinianum, Plantago maritima var. juncoides, Triglochin maritima, Spartina patens, Suaeda maritima, and Atriplex spp. Borrichia frutescens can be an occasional component in Virginia. Algal mats are characteristically present, visible even in densely vegetated pannes. Blue-green algae are an important component of these mats, in some cases contributing significantly more biomass to the community than do vascular species. Diagnostic species include Salicornia bigelovii and Salicornia virginica.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This community occurs in coastal salt marshes from Nova Scotia to the Carolinas, north of the range of Batis maritima. Salt pannes can potentially be classified based on morphology, salinity gradients, or substrate (Godfrey et al. 1978), which may elucidate further variation.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.5 - Salt Marsh
Division 2.C.5.Nb - Temperate & Boreal Atlantic Coastal Salt Marsh
Macrogroup North American Atlantic & Gulf Coast Salt Marsh
Group Atlantic & Gulf Coast Saline Flat & Panne
Alliance Atlantic Coast Salt Flat & Panne

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002278 Sarcocornia pacifica - (Batis maritima, Distichlis spicata) Dwarf-shrubland
CEGL003956 Batis maritima - Sarcocornia pacifica Dwarf-shrubland
CEGL006586 Spartina alterniflora - Distichlis spicata Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Slender glasswort - Smooth cordgrass (Salicornia maritima - Spartina alterniflora) community Equivalent Certain Metzler and Barrett 2006
Delaware Salt Panne Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maine Spartina Saltmarsh Broader   Gawler 2002
Massachusetts Salt Marsh Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Salt Pannes and Pools Broader   Sperduto and Nichols 2004
New Jersey Sarcocornia perennis - Salicornia spp. - Spartina alterniflora Dwarf-shrubland Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
New York Salt Panne Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
North Carolina Salt Flat Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
Rhode Island Salt Panne Broader   Enser 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Salicornia (virginica, bigelovii, maritima) - Spartina alterniflora Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salicornia - Bassia salt flat
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harvill, A. M., Jr. 1965. The vegetation of Parramore Island, Virginia. Castanea 30:226-228.
Related Concept Name: Salicornia europaea - Spartina alterniflora community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K. J., and J. Barrett. 1992. Connecticut community classification. Unpublished draft. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
Related Concept Name: Salicornia virginica Tidal Dwarf Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Salicornia virginica Tidal Dwarf-Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salicornia tidal flat
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clovis, J. F. 1968. The vegetation of Smith Island, Virginia. Castanea 33:115-121.
Related Concept Name: Salicornietum ambiguae
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Conard, H. S. 1935. The plant associations of central Long Island. The American Midland Naturalist 16:433-516.
Related Concept Name: Sarcocornia perennis - (Distichlis spicata, Spartina alterniflora) Dwarf-shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bartgis, R. 1986. Natural community descriptions. Unpublished draft. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.
Related Concept Name: Spartina alterniflora / Salicornia europaea community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clancy, K. 1993b. A preliminary classification of the natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Inventory, Division of Parks and Recreation, Dover. 30 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pan
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Nichols, G. E. 1920. The vegetation of Connecticut: III. The associations of depositing areas along the seacoast. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 47:511-548.
Related Concept Name: Panne
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Good, R. E. 1965. Salt marsh vegetation, Cape May, New Jersey. Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science 10:1-11.
Related Concept Name: Panne marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Baumann, C. 1978b. The effects of overwash on the vegetation of a Virginia barrier island. M.A. thesis. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA. 104 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pans
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Higgins, E. A. T., R. D. Rappleye, and R. G. Brown. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. University of Maryland Experiment Station Bulletin A-172. 70 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.
Related Concept Name: Salt Flat
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salt Marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salt Panne
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salt marsh complex, pannes
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salt pan
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Klotz, L. H. 1986. The vascular flora of Wallops Island and Wallops Mainland, Virginia. Castanea 51:306-326.
Related Concept Name: Salt panne
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clancy, K. 1993b. A preliminary classification of the natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Inventory, Division of Parks and Recreation, Dover. 30 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Miller, W. R., and F. E. Egler. 1950. Vegetation of the Wequetequock-Pawcatuck tidal-marshes, Connecticut. Ecological Monographs 20:143-172.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Spartina Saltmarsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.
Related Concept Name: Stunted Spartina alterniflora community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Miller, W. R., and F. E. Egler. 1950. Vegetation of the Wequetequock-Pawcatuck tidal-marshes, Connecticut. Ecological Monographs 20:143-172.
Related Concept Name: Tidal Mesohaline / Polyhaline Marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.578 Acadian Coastal Salt Marsh
CES203.260 Atlantic Coastal Plain Embayed Region Tidal Salt and Brackish Marsh
CES203.270 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Salt and Brackish Tidal Marsh
CES203.519 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Tidal Salt Marsh


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DE, GApotentially occurs, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY, RI, SCpotentially occurs, VA
Canadian Province Distribution: NB, NS, QC
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This association occurs along the Mid- and North Atlantic Coast from the Canadian maritime provinces south to North Carolina and possibly South Carolina and Georgia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Fundy Coastal and Interior Section
Section Code: 212C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Central Maine Coastal and Embayment Section
Section Code: 212D Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This association includes tidally flooded hypersaline flats or very shallow depressions (pannes) dominated by succulents and other halophytic herbs. Total vegetative cover is quite variable in pannes, from near total absence of vascular plants to a dense cover of Salicornia virginica, Salicornia bigelovii, Salicornia maritima, Sarcocornia pacifica, or Spartina alterniflora (short form). Common associates include Limonium carolinianum, Plantago maritima var. juncoides, Triglochin maritima, Spartina patens, Suaeda maritima, and Atriplex spp. Algal mats are characteristically present, visible even in densely vegetated pannes. Borrichia frutescens can be an occasional component in Virginia. Blue-green algae are an important component of these mats, in some cases contributing significantly more biomass to the community than do vascular species. The following algae were noted to occur in association with Spartina alterniflora in the littoral zone of a Massachusetts salt marsh: Oscillatoria subuliformis, Oscillatoria amphibia, Lyngbea spp., Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Nodularia harveyana, Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum, and Symploca spp. (Webber 1967).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Salicornia bigelovii   Succulent forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Salicornia virginica   Succulent forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Sarcocornia perennis   Succulent forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Spartina alterniflora   Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Vegetation of this association tends to develop in shallow depressions in salt marshes where drainage is poor. It tends to occur more frequently on the high marsh but occurs within low marsh as well. Pannes form in depressions that range from 2-30 cm lower than the elevation of the marsh. The depressions are regularly to irregularly flooded by tides, and as the water evaporates during low tide, the salinity concentration increases forming "salt pannes." Substrate is soft, silty muck or peat of variable density. Habitats occupied by this vegetation may be highly ephemeral and constantly shifting on the landscape as existing depressions fill with sediments and new depressions form elsewhere.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Salt pannes are part of the shifting mosaic of plant communities of the salt marsh complex. They tend to occur more frequently on the high marsh, but are present in the low marsh as well. Pannes are variable in shape and likely variable in origin. Formation can result from ice scouring or rafting flotsam that scrapes away or smothers existing vegetation, or from peat compaction, mosquito ditch levees, or tidal creek bank erosion that blocks or impedes drainage. Lack of vegetation decreases local sedimentation, which also maintains lower micro-relief (Redfield 1972). Evaporation from these poorly drained shallow depressions leads to hypersaline conditions (Bertness et al. 1992, Niering and Warren 1980). Gradients of salinity and standing water depth and duration correlate to vegetative cover and composition. The lowest portions of pannes tend to be wetter and more saline and can have little or no vegetation. As duration of wetness and salinity decreases across the micro-relief, forb-dominated species assemblages tend to dominate followed by mixed graminoid-forb assemblages at the outer, higher edges (Redfield 1972). Pannes can be ephemeral features on the marsh, and vegetation cover and composition can vary from year to year. Unvegetated, soft-bottomed pannes generally have plentiful worm and crab burrows (Godfrey et al. 1978).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon and A. Berdine, mod. A.S. Weakley and S.L. Neid
Element Description Edition Date: 06Sep2013
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid, mod. L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Ball, P. W. 2003a. Salicornia. Pages 382-384 in: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 4. Oxford University Press, New York.

  • Bartgis, R. 1986. Natural community descriptions. Unpublished draft. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.

  • Baumann, C. 1978b. The effects of overwash on the vegetation of a Virginia barrier island. M.A. thesis. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA. 104 pp.

  • Bell, R., M. Chandler, R. Buchsbaum, and C. Roman. 2002. Inventory of intertidal habitats: Boston Harbor Islands, a National Park area. Technical Report NPS/NERBOST/NRTR-2004/1. National Park Service, Northeast Region, Boston, MA. 13 pp.

  • Berdine, M. A. 1998. Maryland vegetation classification. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD.

  • Bertness, M. D., L. Gough, and S. W. Shumway. 1992. Salt tolerances and the distribution of fugitive salt marsh plants. Ecology 73(5):1842-1851.

  • Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.

  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Clancy, K. 1993b. A preliminary classification of the natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Inventory, Division of Parks and Recreation, Dover. 30 pp.

  • Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.

  • Clovis, J. F. 1968. The vegetation of Smith Island, Virginia. Castanea 33:115-121.

  • Conard, H. S. 1935. The plant associations of central Long Island. The American Midland Naturalist 16:433-516.

  • Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Dowhan, J. J., and R. Rozsa. 1989. Flora of Fire Island, Suffolk Country, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 116:265-282.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008a. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gateway National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/107. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 283 pp.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Enser, R. 1999. Natural communities of Rhode Island. Unpublished draft, December 1999. 22 pp.

  • Enser, R. W., and J. A. Lundgren. 2006. Natural communities of Rhode Island. A joint project of the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston. 40 pp. [www.rinhs.org]

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  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2001. Natural landscapes of Maine: Natural community profiles. Open (non-forested) types. Final review draft, July 2001. Maine Natural Areas Program. Department of Conservation. Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Godfrey, P. J., M. Benedict, and M. Soukup. 1978. A guide to the ecology of Cape Cod National Seashore (Mary 1978 draft). National Park Service Cooperative Research Unit, Institute for Man and Environment, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

  • Good, R. E. 1965. Salt marsh vegetation, Cape May, New Jersey. Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science 10:1-11.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Harvill, A. M., Jr. 1965. The vegetation of Parramore Island, Virginia. Castanea 30:226-228.

  • Higgins, E. A. T., R. D. Rappleye, and R. G. Brown. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. University of Maryland Experiment Station Bulletin A-172. 70 pp.

  • Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.

  • Klopfer, S. D., A. Olivero, L. Sneddon, and J. Lundgren. 2002. Final report of the NPS Vegetation Mapping Project at Fire Island National Seashore. Conservation Management Institute, GIS & Remote Sensing Division, College of Natural Resources, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA. 193 pp.

  • Klotz, L. H. 1986. The vascular flora of Wallops Island and Wallops Mainland, Virginia. Castanea 51:306-326.

  • Largay, E. F., and L. A. Sneddon. 2010. Vegetation mapping and classification of Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--XXXX/XXX. National Park Service. Philadelphia, PA.

  • Metzler, K. J., and J. Barrett. 1992. Connecticut community classification. Unpublished draft. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Miller, W. R., and F. E. Egler. 1950. Vegetation of the Wequetequock-Pawcatuck tidal-marshes, Connecticut. Ecological Monographs 20:143-172.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. 2001b. Soil survey of Gateway National Recreation Area, New York and New Jersey. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and USDI National Park Service, Gateway National Recreation Area in partnership with Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station and New York City Soil and Water Conservation District.

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  • Nichols, G. E. 1920. The vegetation of Connecticut: III. The associations of depositing areas along the seacoast. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 47:511-548.

  • Niering, W. A., and R. S. Warren. 1980. Vegetation patterns and processes in New England salt marshes. BioScience 30:301-307.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Redfield, A. C. 1972. Development of a New England salt marsh. Ecological Monographs 42(2):201-237.

  • Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Sneddon, L. A., Zaremba, R. E., and M. Adams. 2010. Vegetation classification and mapping at Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. Natural Resources Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2010/147. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 481 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/caco/cacorpt.pdf]

  • Sperduto, D. D. 2000b. A classification of wetland natural communities in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, Department of Resources and Economic Development, Division of Forests and Lands, Concord, NH. 156 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2001. Classification of natural communities of Massachusetts. September 2001 draft. Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1995c. NBS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Vegetation classification of Assateague Island National Seashore. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2012. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Unpublished working draft. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. [http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm]

  • Webber, E. E. 1967. Bluegreen algae from a Massachusetts salt marsh. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 94:99-106.


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Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of October 2015.
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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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