NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Quercus prinus - Pinus virginiana - (Pinus pungens) / Schizachyrium scoparium - Dichanthelium depauperatum Woodland
Translated Name: Chestnut Oak - Virginia Pine - (Table Mountain Pine) / Little Bluestem - Starved Witchgrass Woodland
Common Name: Central Appalachian Chestnut Oak - Virginia Pine Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL008540
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community is a mixed oak-pine woodland with a canopy of stunted, often gnarled trees, varying from semi-open to very open. It occurs on steep convex slopes, ridge spurs, and clifftops which have high solar exposure. Most are on moderate to steep slopes with much exposed mineral soil. Sites are confined to lower elevations (<770 m [2500 feet]), are distinctly xeric, and usually have southeast to southwest aspects. Underlying bedrock includes quartzite, metasandstone and sandstone, granite, shale, and other acidic rocks. Surface cover of outcrops and loose stones is relatively high. Soils are extremely acidic. The canopy is typically codominated by Quercus prinus and Pinus virginiana in variable proportions; in some slightly more mesic occurrences, Quercus rubra may occur with or in place of Quercus prinus. Pinus pungens is an important, even dominant, associate in a minority of stands. Minor but relatively constant tree associates include Carya glabra, Amelanchier arborea, and Sassafras albidum. Minor, inconstant tree associates include Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina, Quercus stellata, Quercus marilandica, Quercus alba, Carya alba, Carya ovata, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus strobus, and Fraxinus americana. The shrub layer varies from moderately dense to sparse, with Vaccinium pallidum and Vaccinium stamineum the most constant and abundant species. Quercus ilicifolia, Kalmia latifolia, Rhus copallinum, Rhus aromatica, Rosa carolina, Castanea pumila, Viburnum acerifolium, and Toxicodendron pubescens are inconstant, but occasionally common, in the type. Herbaceous composition and density vary with shrub density. Graminoid-rich openings dominated by Schizachyrium scoparium, Dichanthelium depauperatum, Carex pensylvanica, Danthonia spicata, and Dichanthelium commutatum are frequent. Also present is a surprising variety of low-cover forbs, among the most characteristic of which are Hieracium venosum, Solidago erecta, Potentilla canadensis, Campanula divaricata, Viola sagittata, Houstonia longifolia, Antennaria plantaginifolia, Aureolaria laevigata, Helianthus divaricatus, Cunila origanoides, Symphyotrichum undulatum (= Aster undulatus), Coreopsis verticillata, Tephrosia virginiana, Lespedeza frutescens, Polygonatum biflorum var. biflorum, Taenidia integerrima, Asplenium platyneuron, and Clitoria mariana.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: The classification of this type is supported by analysis of 28 Virginia, 3 Maryland, and 8 West Virginia plot samples. Additional inventory and data collection are needed to clarify the geographic range, classification, and environmental context of this type. The known range of this community is limited to the Northern Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, Cumberlands, and Piedmont in Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland, but geologic substrates and site conditions similar to those supporting the known examples occur elsewhere in the Central Appalachians, and a broader geographic range seems likely. Recent data indicating possible rock chemistry and compositional gradients may result in future splitting of the type, or expansion of the concept (G. Fleming pers. comm. 2009).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Virginia Pine - Table Mountain Pine Woodland & Barrens
Alliance Appalachian Pine - Oak Acidic Shale Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003624 Pinus virginiana / Vaccinium pallidum / Schizachyrium scoparium - Carex pensylvanica Woodland
CEGL004821 Pinus rigida - Quercus prinus / Gaylussacia baccata / Carex pensylvanica Woodland
CEGL007720 Quercus prinus - Juniperus virginiana - (Pinus virginiana) / Philadelphus hirsutus - Celtis occidentalis Woodland
CEGL008526 Quercus prinus / Quercus ilicifolia / Danthonia spicata Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Pinus pungens - Pinus rigida / Quercus ilicifolia / Gaylussacia baccata Association: Andropogon scoparius - Coreopsis verticillata - Dichanthelium depauperatum Subassociation, pro parte
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana - Pinus virginiana - (Pinus pungens) / Schizachyrium scoparium - Dichanthelium depauperatum Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - Pinus virginiana - (Pinus pungens) / Schizachyrium scoparium - Dichanthelium depauperatum Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - Pinus virginiana - Quercus (marilandica, stellata) / Dichanthelium depauperatum Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut Oak Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Mountain / Piedmont Acidic Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.600 Central Appalachian Pine-Oak Rocky Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3? (08Feb2008)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Although this community is likely to have a broader distribution in the Central Appalachians than present documentation suggests, it is a small-patch vegetation type restricted to special habitat conditions.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: MD, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: The known range of this community is limited to the Northern Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, and western Piedmont in Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland, but geologic substrates and site conditions similar to those supporting the known examples occur elsewhere in the Central Appalachians, and a broader geographic range seems likely.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy cover of stunted, often gnarled trees varies from semi-open to very open. Quercus prinus and Pinus virginiana are usually codominant in variable proportions; in some slightly more mesic occurrences, Quercus rubra may occur with or in place of Quercus prinus. Pinus pungens is an important, even dominant, associate in a minority of stands. Minor but relatively constant tree associates include Carya glabra, Amelanchier arborea, and Sassafras albidum. Minor, inconstant tree associates include Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina, Quercus stellata, Quercus marilandica, Quercus alba, Carya alba, Carya ovata, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus strobus, and Fraxinus americana. The shrub layer varies from moderately dense to sparse, with Vaccinium pallidum and Vaccinium stamineum the most constant and abundant species. Quercus ilicifolia, Kalmia latifolia, Rhus copallinum, Rhus aromatica, Rosa carolina, Castanea pumila, Viburnum acerifolium, and Toxicodendron pubescens are inconstant, but occasionally common, in the type. Herbaceous composition and density vary with shrub density. Graminoid-rich openings dominated by Schizachyrium scoparium, Dichanthelium depauperatum, Carex pensylvanica, Danthonia spicata, and Dichanthelium commutatum are frequent. Occasional stands feature patch-dominance by Sorghastrum nutans or Andropogon gerardii. Also present is a surprising variety of low-cover forbs, among the most characteristic of which are Hieracium venosum, Solidago erecta, Potentilla canadensis, Campanula divaricata, Viola sagittata, Houstonia longifolia, Antennaria plantaginifolia, Aureolaria laevigata, Helianthus divaricatus, Cunila origanoides, Symphyotrichum undulatum (= Aster undulatus), Coreopsis verticillata, Tephrosia virginiana, Lespedeza frutescens, Polygonatum biflorum var. biflorum, Taenidia integerrima, Asplenium platyneuron, and Clitoria mariana. Additional herbs occurring less frequently include Lespedeza hirta, Solidago odora, Deschampsia flexuosa, Coreopsis major, Solidago puberula var. puberula, Solidago bicolor, Solidago arguta var. caroliniana, Solidago sphacelata, Hypericum hypericoides ssp. multicaule (= Hypericum stragulum), Lysimachia quadrifolia, Asclepias amplexicaulis, Sericocarpus asteroides, Dicentra eximia, Paronychia fastigiata, Sericocarpus linifolius, Ionactis linariifolius, Symphyotrichum laeve, Phlox subulata, Pellaea atropurpurea, Polygonum scandens var. cristatum, Viola x palmata, Arabis laevigata, and Zizia trifoliata. Vascular plant species richness of plot-sampled stands ranges from 17 to 56 taxa per 400 square meters (mean = 37). Nonvascular cover tends to be sparse and characterized by fruticose lichens, including Cladina arbuscula (= Cladonia arbuscula).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus marilandica G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus virginiana G3 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Castanea pumila G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Rhus copallinum G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Toxicodendron pubescens G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Vaccinium pallidum G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Vaccinium stamineum G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Allium oxyphilum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hieracium venosum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lespedeza hirta G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Monarda fistulosa ssp. 1 G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Solidago odora G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Taenidia montana G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Tephrosia virginiana G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex pensylvanica G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Carex umbellata G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Danthonia spicata G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Dichanthelium commutatum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Dichanthelium depauperatum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Schizachyrium scoparium G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Allium oxyphilum
  (Lillydale Onion)
G2  
Monarda fistulosa ssp. 1
  (Smoke Hole Bergamot)
G5T1T2  
Taenidia montana
  (Mountain Parsley)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association occurs on steep convex slopes, ridge spurs, and clifftops which have high solar exposure. Most habitats are characterized by moderate to steep (mean = 24) slopes with much exposed mineral soil. Sites are confined to lower elevations (<770 m [2500 feet]), are distinctly xeric, and usually have southeast to southwest aspects. Underlying bedrock at plot-sampling sites in VA, MD, and WV includes Antietam quartzite, ferruginous metasandstone of the Harper's Formation, acidic granites, acidic phases of Catoctin metabasalt, schistose metasedimentary rocks of the Mather Gorge Formation, shales and sandstones of the Hinton formation in the Mauch Chunk group, and ancient alluvium composed of quartzitic cobbles. Surface cover of outcrops and loose stones is relatively high (mean = 38% in MD and VA plots). Soils are extremely acidic (mean pH = 4.4) and very low in base status, except for high aluminum levels and sometimes relatively high potassium levels. One somewhat anomalous site is located on massive alluvial fans that overlie the floor of the Great Valley of Virginia along the foot of the Blue Ridge in Augusta County. Here, stands occupy barren, elevated cobble terraces bordering a stream and representing the floodplain level of an earlier erosional cycle.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): K.D. Patterson and G.P. Fleming, mod. G.P. Fleming and P.P. Coulling
Element Description Edition Date: 24Feb2010
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Fleming, P.P. Coulling, S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Feb2008
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Fleming and P.P. Coulling, mod. S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Braunschweig, S. H., E. T. Nilsen, and T. F. Wieboldt. 1999. The mid-Appalachian shale barrens. Pages 83-98 in: R. C. Anderson, J. S. Fralish, and J. M. Baskin. Savannas, barrens, and rock outcrop plant communities of North America. Cambridge University Press, NY.

  • Fleming, G. P., A. Belden, Jr., K. E. Heffernan, A. C. Chazal, N. E. Van Alstine, and E. M. Butler. 2007a. A natural heritage inventory of the rock outcrops of Shenandoah National Park. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Natural Heritage Technical Report 07-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 433 pp. plus appendixes.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2004. Draft vegetation types in National Capital Region Parks. Edited by S.C. Gawler and J. Teague. Working draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. July 2004. 157 pp.

  • Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., B. P. Streets, J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping of Bluestone National Scenic River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/106. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date (b). Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, W. Cass, and C. Lea. 2009. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients, Version 2.0. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2009/142. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 389 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016