NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Quercus alba - Carya alba / Euonymus americanus / Hexastylis arifolia Forest
Translated Name: White Oak - Mockernut Hickory / American Strawberry-bush / Arrowleaf Heartleaf Forest
Common Name: Southern Piedmont Mesic Subacidic Oak - Hickory Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006227
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This type represents mesic, subacidic oak-hickory forests of the southern Piedmont and possibly adjacent ecoregions. Stands of this association typically exhibit heavy dominance by Quercus alba and Carya alba. The canopy or subcanopy may also contain Fagus grandifolia, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Carya ovalis, Prunus serotina, Acer rubrum, Quercus nigra, Quercus falcata, Quercus velutina, Oxydendrum arboreum, Fraxinus spp., Halesia sp., Nyssa sylvatica, and Cornus florida. Some stands may contain a minor component of Pinus echinata. Shrubs include Euonymus americanus, Rhododendron canescens, Calycanthus floridus, Aesculus pavia, Hydrangea quercifolia, Vaccinium elliottii, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, Asimina parviflora, and Asimina parviflora. Vines such as Toxicodendron radicans, Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax glauca, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Vitis rotundifolia are abundant. Some typical herbs are Hexastylis arifolia, Mitchella repens, Polystichum acrostichoides, Dioscorea villosa, Elephantopus tomentosus, Maianthemum racemosum, Coreopsis major, Desmodium nudiflorum, and Hypoxis hirsuta.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: Based on data in Golden (1979; 6 stands sampled). This association needs clarification and expansion, and subsequent range assessment. In particular, compare to Quercus rubra - Quercus alba - Carya glabra / Geranium maculatum Forest (CEGL007237) and Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya alba / Vaccinium stamineum / Desmodium nudiflorum Piedmont Forest (CEGL008475). Golden's data may actually represent a variety of Quercus alba-dominated associations. More information is needed.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Interior-Northeastern Mesic Forest
Group Appalachian-Central Interior Mesic Forest
Alliance Piedmont-Ridge and Valley Beech - Red Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL007232 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya (ovata, carolinae-septentrionalis) / Cercis canadensis Forest
CEGL007237 Quercus rubra - Quercus alba - Carya glabra / Geranium maculatum Forest
CEGL007244 Quercus falcata - Quercus alba - Carya alba / Oxydendrum arboreum / Vaccinium stamineum Forest
CEGL008475 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya alba / Vaccinium stamineum / Desmodium nudiflorum Piedmont Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
South Carolina Quercus alba - Carya alba / Euonymus americana / Hexastylis arifolia Forest Equivalent Certain SCWMRD unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: White Oak
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Golden, M. S. 1979. Forest vegetation of the lower Alabama Piedmont. Ecology 60:770-782.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.342 Southern Piedmont Mesic Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (03Sep2002)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Global rank changed from G5? to G4G5 to better reflect its rarity and the possible uncertainty. This is a somewhat widespread type, but is not secure across its range. The Piedmont is an area of rapid population growth, and at a minimum this forest is threatened by removal of commercially valuable timber species (e.g., Quercus alba), conversion to other forest types, and fragmentation and removal in areas of human population growth.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, GA, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is found in the Piedmont from South Carolina to Alabama.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: 231D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this association typically exhibit heavy dominance by Quercus alba and Carya alba. The canopy or subcanopy may also contain Fagus grandifolia, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Carya ovalis, Prunus serotina, Acer rubrum, Quercus nigra, Quercus falcata, Quercus velutina, Oxydendrum arboreum, Fraxinus spp., Halesia sp., Nyssa sylvatica, and Cornus florida. Some stands may contain a minor component of Pinus echinata. Shrubs include Euonymus americanus, Rhododendron canescens, Calycanthus floridus, Aesculus pavia, Hydrangea quercifolia, Vaccinium elliottii, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, Asimina parviflora, and Asimina parviflora. Vines such as Toxicodendron radicans, Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax glauca, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Vitis rotundifolia are abundant. Some typical herbs are Hexastylis arifolia, Mitchella repens, Polystichum acrostichoides, Dioscorea villosa, Elephantopus tomentosus, Maianthemum racemosum, Coreopsis major, Desmodium nudiflorum, and Hypoxis hirsuta (Golden 1979).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus alba G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This community occupies protected low slopes in the acidic Piedmont where creeks have cut small draws or valleys.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This community typically exists on sheltered gentle slopes leading down to drainageways in the Piedmont. It is most likely not fire-tolerant.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): J.E. Mohan after M.S. Golden (1979)
Element Description Edition Date: 26Mar2003
Element Description Author(s): J.E. Mohan
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Sep2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Golden, M. S. 1979. Forest vegetation of the lower Alabama Piedmont. Ecology 60:770-782.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2004. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Cowpens National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 126 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016