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Pinus serotina / Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Wooded Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Pond Pine / Switch Cane Wooded Wet Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL003851
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community occurs on shallow organic soils (10-100 cm deep), in areas which burn every 3-12 years. Typically it is found around the periphery of deep peat deposits where peat feathers out onto mineral soil, in peat-filled depressions and sloughs in pine barrens, or on upland flats where drainage is poor enough to permit accumulation of an organic layer deep enough to support the cane rhizome mat. It is likely that the soil is saturated throughout most of the winter and spring, and probably dries out in the summer and fall. Organic matter depth, fire frequency, and nutrient availability are the primary factors controlling vegetation structure and composition in this community. Occurrences are known from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and North Carolina. This community is characterized by dense stands of Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta occasionally reaching 5 m in height, with scattered to fairly dense Pinus serotina (sometimes with some Nyssa biflora or Liriodendron tulipifera). Physiognomy and structure vary with fire-return interval. In areas that burn every 3-5 years, the appearance of the community will be that of nearly pure Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta, perhaps with scattered Pinus serotina. Cover of pocosin shrubs (e.g., Ilex glabra, Ilex coriacea, Lyonia lucida, Lyonia ligustrina var. foliosiflora, Cyrilla racemiflora, Zenobia pulverulenta, Magnolia virginiana, Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia)) and Acer rubrum var. trilobum increases with lack of fire, and with fire suppression greater than 15 years, these species will overtake the cane.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This community is thought to have been common in presettlement times, existing as large, open tracts. Most of the presettlement acreage has succeeded to pocosin vegetation because of fire exclusion or has been drained and cleared for agriculture. This community, or one similar to it, may be present in southern Georgia and in Florida (S. Orzell pers. comm.). See Pinus serotina / Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Swamp Woodland (CEGL004433) for modern variant.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.2 - Temperate to Polar Bog & Fen
Division 2.C.2.Nb - Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Pocosin
Macrogroup Southeastern Coastal Bog & Fen
Group Southeastern Coastal Pocosin & Shrub Bog
Alliance Switch Cane Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004433 Pinus serotina / Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Swamp Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Pond Pine Woodland (Canebrake Subtype) Broader   Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: IIB2c. Peatland Canebrake
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pond Pine Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pond Pine Woodland (Canebrake Subtype/Phase)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.267 Atlantic Coastal Plain Peatland Pocosin and Canebrake


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (14Apr2004)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This wooded shrubland is restricted in range and highly specific in habitat preference. This community is restricted to shallow organic soils (10-100 cm deep), in areas which burn every three to twelve years, around the periphery of deep peat deposits where peat feathers out onto mineral soil, and in similar areas. Its physiognomy and structure vary with fire-return interval. With frequent fire (every three to five years), the vegetation is nearly pure dense stands of switch cane, perhaps with scattered Pinus serotina. Cover of pocosin shrubs increases with lack of fire, and with fire suppression greater than 15 years, these species will overtake the cane. Occurrences are known from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and North Carolina. It is extirpated from Virginia. This community is thought to have been common in presettlement times, existing as large, open tracts. Most of the presettlement acreage has succeeded to pocosin vegetation because of fire exclusion or has been drained and cleared for agriculture. Remaining examples are highly threatened by development, conversion, and alteration of fire regimes. Most of those occurrences which have not been destroyed are severely degraded.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: Occurrences of this community are known from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and North Carolina. It is extirpated from Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This community is characterized by dense stands of Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta occasionally reaching 5 m in height, with scattered to fairly dense Pinus serotina (sometimes with some Nyssa biflora or Liriodendron tulipifera). Physiognomy and structure vary with fire-return interval. In areas that burn every 3-5 years, the appearance of the community will be that of nearly pure Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta, perhaps with scattered Pinus serotina. Cover of pocosin shrubs (e.g., Ilex glabra, Ilex coriacea, Lyonia lucida, Lyonia ligustrina var. foliosiflora, Cyrilla racemiflora, Zenobia pulverulenta, Magnolia virginiana, Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia)) and Acer rubrum var. trilobum increases with lack of fire, and with fire suppression greater than 15 years, these species will overtake the cane.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occurs on shallow organic soils (10-100 cm deep), in areas which burn every 3-12 years. Typically it is found around the periphery of deep peat deposits where peat feathers out onto mineral soil, in peat-filled depressions and sloughs in pine barrens, or on upland flats where drainage is poor enough to permit accumulation of an organic layer deep enough to support the cane rhizome mat. It is likely that the soil is saturated throughout most of the winter and spring, and probably dries out in the summer and fall.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Organic matter depth, fire frequency, and nutrient availability are the primary factors controlling vegetation structure and composition in this community. Cover of pocosin shrubs (e.g., Ilex glabra, Ilex coriacea, Lyonia lucida, Lyonia ligustrina var. foliosiflora, Cyrilla racemiflora, Zenobia pulverulenta, Magnolia virginiana, Photinia pyrifolia), and Acer rubrum var. trilobum increases with lack of fire, and with fire suppression greater than 15 years, these species will overtake the cane. It is likely that the soil where this community occurs is saturated throughout most of the winter and spring, and probably dries out in the summer and fall.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D.J. Allard
Element Description Edition Date: 02Jan2013
Element Description Author(s): D.J. Allard
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Jan2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): Southeastern Ecology Group

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2012. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 12-04. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 36 pp.

  • Frost, C. C. 1989. History and status of remnant pocosin, canebrake and white cedar wetlands in Virginia. Unpublished report. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Frost, C. C. No date. Presettlement vegetation of the Albemarle-Pamlico region, North Carolina. Draft of Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Glitzenstein, J. S., and D. R. Streng. 2004. Evaluating the NatureServe preliminary plant community classification for Francis Marion National Forest. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Plus appendices and data.

  • Heineke, T. E. 1987. The flora and plant communities of the middle Mississippi River Valley. Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. 653 pp.

  • Hughes, R. H. 1966. Fire ecology of canebrakes. Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 5:149-158.

  • Meanley, B. 1972. Swamps, river bottoms and canebrakes. Barre Publishing, Barre, MA. 142 pp.

  • Orzell, S. L. Personal communication. Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, Nongame Wildlife Program, Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee.

  • Platt, S. G., and C. G. Brantley. 1997. Canebrakes: An ecological and historical perspective. Castanea 62:8-21.

  • Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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