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Quercus alba - Carya glabra / Schizachyrium scoparium - Salvia urticifolia - Parthenium auriculatum Woodland
Translated Name: White Oak - Pignut Hickory / Little Bluestem - Nettleleaf Sage - Glade Wild Quinine Woodland
Common Name: Piedmont Diabase White Oak Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL003721
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This is a fire-maintained woodland of the Piedmont of Virginia, occurring on soils derived from diabase rock. Although the fire frequency is abnormally high in known sites (on Fort Pickett), this community may be quite similar to some pre-settlement Piedmont communities. Canopy dominants include Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, Quercus falcata, Quercus coccinea, Carya alba, Carya glabra, Carya ovalis, Nyssa sylvatica, and Liriodendron tulipifera. The subcanopy includes Cercis canadensis, Cornus florida, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Shrubs and woody vines include Rhus copallinum, Rhus michauxii, Rhus glabra, Diospyros virginiana, Ulmus alata, Sassafras albidum, Toxicodendron radicans, Viburnum rafinesquianum, and Fraxinus americana. The herb layer includes Schizachyrium scoparium, Helianthus divaricatus, Salvia urticifolia, Parthenium auriculatum (= Parthenium integrifolium var. auriculatum), Chrysogonum virginianum, Ageratina aromatica, Desmodium laevigatum, Desmodium marilandicum, Desmodium nuttallii, Desmodium paniculatum, Desmodium perplexum, Eupatorium hyssopifolium, Eupatorium godfreyanum, Clitoria mariana, Eupatorium sessilifolium, Eupatorium altissimum (= Eupatorium saltuense), Galactia regularis, Lespedeza procumbens, Solidago pinetorum, Solidago rugosa, Solidago nemoralis, Solidago juncea, Ruellia purshiana, Matelea decipiens, Sanicula smallii, Angelica venenosa, Ligusticum canadense, Thalictrum revolutum, Triosteum angustifolium, and Clematis ochroleuca. This community occurs in association with Quercus alba - Quercus velutina - Quercus stellata / Schizachyrium scoparium - Desmodium spp. Woodland (CEGL003722), differing in underlying geology (diabase vs. granite).



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Chinquapin Oak - Shumard Oak - Blue Ash Alkaline Forest & Woodland
Alliance Piedmont-Appalachian Ash - Hickory Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003722 Quercus alba - Quercus velutina - Quercus stellata / Schizachyrium scoparium - Desmodium spp. Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Quercus alba - Carya alba / Helianthus divaricatus - Ageratina aromatica - (Salvia urticifolia) Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.
Related Concept Name: Quercus alba - Carya alba / Schizachyrium scoparium - Chrysogonum virginianum - Ageratina aromatica - (Salvia urticifolia) Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Quercus alba - Carya alba / Schizachyrium scoparium - Chrysogonum virginianum - Ageratina aromatica - (Salvia urticifolia) Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Oak - Hickory Woodland / Savanna
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.339 Southern Piedmont Dry Oak-(Pine) Forest and Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1? (30Jan2001)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This community is currently restricted to Fort Pickett, Virginia, so far as is currently known, where it is maintained by frequent fires set by military training. It is believed, though, that this community may approximate communities which formerly occurred on mafic rock sites of the Piedmont under conditions of more frequent fire. The former distribution may have extended south from central Virginia through North Carolina and into South Carolina. Current acreage of this community is less than 1000 acres.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is currently restricted to Fort Pickett, Virginia, but may formerly have occurred south through the Piedmont on mafic rock sites in North Carolina and South Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Canopy dominants include Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, Quercus falcata, Quercus coccinea, Carya alba, Carya glabra, Carya ovalis, Nyssa sylvatica, and Liriodendron tulipifera. The subcanopy includes Cercis canadensis, Cornus florida, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Shrubs and woody vines include Rhus copallinum, Rhus michauxii, Rhus glabra, Diospyros virginiana, Ulmus alata, Sassafras albidum, Toxicodendron radicans, Viburnum rafinesquianum, and Fraxinus americana. The herb layer includes Schizachyrium scoparium, Helianthus divaricatus, Salvia urticifolia, Parthenium auriculatum (= Parthenium integrifolium var. auriculatum), Chrysogonum virginianum, Ageratina aromatica, Desmodium laevigatum, Desmodium marilandicum, Desmodium nuttallii, Desmodium paniculatum, Desmodium perplexum, Eupatorium hyssopifolium, Eupatorium godfreyanum, Clitoria mariana, Eupatorium sessilifolium, Eupatorium altissimum (= Eupatorium saltuense), Galactia regularis, Lespedeza procumbens, Solidago pinetorum, Solidago rugosa, Solidago nemoralis, Solidago juncea, Ruellia purshiana, Matelea decipiens, Sanicula smallii, Angelica venenosa, Ligusticum canadense, Thalictrum revolutum, Triosteum angustifolium, and Clematis ochroleuca.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carya glabra G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus alba G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Rhus michauxii G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Helianthus divaricatus G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Parthenium auriculatum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Salvia urticifolia G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Schizachyrium scoparium G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Parthenium auriculatum
  (Glade Wild Quinine)
G3G4  
Rhus michauxii
  (Michaux's Sumac)
G2G3 LE: Listed endangered


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This is a fire-maintained woodland of the Piedmont of Virginia, occurring on soils derived from diabase rock. Although the fire frequency is abnormally high in known sites (on Fort Pickett), this community may be quite similar to some pre-settlement Piedmont communities.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 01Jan1996
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Jan2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.


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