NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Acer saccharum - (Fraxinus americana) / Arisaema triphyllum Forest
Translated Name: Sugar Maple - (White Ash) / Jack-in-the-Pulpit Forest
Common Name: Semi-rich Northern Hardwood Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006211
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: These are northern hardwood forests of slightly enriched soils in the northern Appalachian Mountains and adjacent northeastern United States and Canada. They occur at moderate elevations of 245 to 610 m (800-2000 feet) on slightly enriched soils, often silt loams derived from pelite or other subacidic bedrock. Ridgetops and slight concavities on hillslopes are both typical settings. They may occur as inclusions within typical northern hardwood forests or may occur over larger areas and be the locally dominant northern hardwood forest. The closed-canopy forest has sparse to moderate shrub cover, moderate herb cover, and may have local carpets of Acer saccharum seedlings in the ground vegetation. Bryoids are a minor component of the forest floor. The canopy is dominated by Acer saccharum, frequently with Fraxinus americana as an associate or even canopy codominant. Other associated hardwood species include Betula alleghaniensis and Betula lenta. Fagus grandifolia is often present but less abundant than in matrix northern hardwood forests. Liriodendron tulipifera may occur in southern New England. Conifers are usually sparse. Shrubs can include Cornus alternifolia, Lindera benzoin, Sambucus racemosa, Acer pensylvanicum, and Ostrya virginiana. Typical herbs of this semi-rich type, which are scarce or absent from standard beech-birch-maple forests, include Arisaema triphyllum, Viola rotundifolia, Tiarella cordifolia, Actaea pachypoda, Osmunda claytoniana, Osmunda cinnamomea, Carex laxiculmis, Carex platyphylla, Carex pedunculata, Eurybia divaricata, Botrychium spp., and Solidago flexicaulis. These forests are intermediate in nutrient regime and composition between Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana / Acer spicatum / Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest (CEGL006636), Acer saccharum - Tilia americana / Acer pensylvanicum / Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest (CEGL006637), Acer saccharum - Betula alleghaniensis - Fagus grandifolia / Viburnum lantanoides Forest (CEGL006631), and Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia - Fraxinus americana / Arisaema triphyllum Forest (CEGL006632). They are more depauperate than other communities of this alliance, for example lacking rich-soil indicators such as Adiantum pedatum, Caulophyllum thalictroides, and Tilia americana that are typical of CEGL006636 and/or CEGL006637.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This type is conceptually well understood, but not well documented in published sources. Additional characterization would be helpful.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Laurentian-Acadian Mesic Hardwood - Conifer Forest
Group Laurentian-Acadian Hardwood Forest
Alliance Rich Northern Hardwood Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006631 Acer saccharum - Betula alleghaniensis - Fagus grandifolia / Viburnum lantanoides Forest
CEGL006632 Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia - Fraxinus americana / Arisaema triphyllum Forest
CEGL006636 Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana / Acer spicatum / Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest
CEGL006637 Acer saccharum - Tilia americana / Acer pensylvanicum / Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana / Thelypteris noveboracensis community Equivalent   Metzler and Barrett 2006
Maine Semi-rich northern hardwood forest Equivalent   Gawler and Cutko 2010
Massachusetts Red Oak - Sugar Maple Transition Forest Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Semi-rich mesic sugar maple forest Equivalent   Sperduto and Nichols 2004
New York Beech-maple mesic forest Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
New York Maple-basswood rich mesic forest Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
Vermont Northern Hardwood Forest Broader   Thompson and Sorenson 2000


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Semi-rich northern hardwood forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: NAP [Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Working Group]. 1998. Northern Appalachian-Boreal Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
Related Concept Name: Sugar Maple: 27
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.564 Laurentian-Acadian Northern Hardwood Forest
CES202.593 Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (07Dec2005)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This association is fairly well-distributed in northern New England and adjacent Canada.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CTpotentially occurs, MA, ME, NH, NJ, NY, VT
Canadian Province Distribution: NB, ON, QCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This forest association occurs in New England west to New York and Ontario and south to Pennsylvania and New Jersey.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Aroostook Hills and Lowlands Section
Section Code: 212A Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Maine-New Brunswick Foothills and Lowlands Section
Section Code: 212B Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Fundy Coastal and Interior Section
Section Code: 212C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Central Maine Coastal and Embayment Section
Section Code: 212D Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: White Mountain Section
Section Code: M212A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Green, Taconic, Berkshire Mountain Section
Section Code: M212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Adirondack Mountain Section
Section Code: M212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Catskill Mountain Section
Section Code: M212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The closed-canopy forest has sparse to moderate shrub cover, moderate herb cover, and may have local carpets of Acer saccharum seedlings in the ground vegetation. Bryoids are a minor component of the forest floor. The canopy is dominated by Acer saccharum, with associated hardwood species including Betula alleghaniensis and Fraxinus americana. Fraxinus may be a canopy codominant in some areas. Fagus grandifolia is often present but less abundant than in matrix northern hardwood forests. Conifers are usually sparse. Shrubs can include Cornus alternifolia, Sambucus racemosa (= Sambucus pubens), Acer pensylvanicum, and Ostrya virginiana. Typical herbs of this semi-rich type, which are scarce or absent from standard beech-birch-maple forests, include Arisaema triphyllum, Viola rotundifolia, Tiarella cordifolia, Actaea pachypoda, Botrychium spp., and Solidago flexicaulis.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer saccharum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Fraxinus americana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Acer pensylvanicum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Ostrya virginiana var. virginiana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Cornus alternifolia G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Sambucus racemosa G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Arisaema triphyllum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Panax quinquefolius G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Panax quinquefolius
  (American Ginseng)
G3G4  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: These are northern hardwood forests of slightly enriched soils in the northern Appalachian Mountains and adjacent northeastern United States and Canada. They occur at moderate elevations of 245 to 610 m (800-2000 feet) on slightly enriched soils, often silt loams derived from pelite or other subacidic bedrock. Ridgetops and slight concavities on hillslopes are both typical settings.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Northern Appalachian Planning Team
Element Description Edition Date: 07Dec2005
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler and L.A. Sneddon
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Dec2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, F. C. Sechler, E. Eastman, E. Largay, L. A. Sneddon, C. Lea, and J. Von Loh. 2014b. Vegetation inventory: Saratoga National Historical Park, New York. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NETN/NRTR--2014/869, National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Gawler, S. C., and P. S. Bowman. 2012. Vegetation classification and mapping at Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site, New Hampshire. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2012/584.1. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.

  • Metzler, K. J., J. P. Barrett, T. E. Nosal, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2009. Vegetation classification and mapping at Weir Farm National Historic Site, Connecticut. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/130. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 128 pp.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.

  • NAP [Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Working Group]. 1998. Northern Appalachian-Boreal Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. 2004a. Soil survey of Saratoga County, New York. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 590 pp.

  • ONHIC [Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre]. 2018. Unpublished data. Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, M. Furedi, B. A. Eichelberger, A. Feldmann, G. Edinger, E. Eastman, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/133. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 370 pp.

  • Sechler, F. C., G. J. Edinger, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, L. A. Sneddon, C. Lea, and J. Von Loh. 2014. Vegetation classification and mapping at Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites, New York. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NETN/NRTR--2014/873, National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 392 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2005. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2019
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019