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Equisetum fluviatile Marsh
Translated Name: Water Horsetail Marsh
Common Name: Water Horsetail Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL002746
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This is an emergent wetland community occurring on seasonally to permanently flooded edges of lakes and ponds, along tidally influenced plains of larger rivers, calm backwater areas of rivers and streams, and in watered abandoned channels. It is presently documented from scattered locations of the Pacific Northwest, from coastal Washington to the interior regions of western Montana and north into the Boreal Plains of Alberta. It occurs from sea level to 1340 m (0-4390 feet) in elevation. Water depths range from below the soil surface to 0.5 m (1.5 feet) deep. Soils are fine-textured silts, clays and muck. Mineral soils often have layers of organic accumulation. Along the Columbia River Gorge, stands occur on river and slough channels on sand and silt and are flooded by freshwater during most high tides. Inland, stands occur in shallow water and wet ground at the edges of slow-moving meander curves in rivers and on the margins of lakes and ponds, stock ponds and reservoirs. Stands are characterized by emergent Equisetum fluviatile with 30-100% cover but tend to be species-poor. Other species present can include Glyceria grandis, Alopecurus aequalis, Carex spp., Eleocharis palustris, Typha spp., and Scirpus and/or Schoenoplectus spp. Stands at lower elevations (Columbia River Surge Plain) had higher species diversity (n=18 for all sampled stands combined) than those at higher elevations (n=3 eastern Washington and Montana).



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This association is defined as a PNV vegetation type. This type can also occur as reed swamp communities. Stands described from Montana, Alberta and eastern Washington have no Eleocharis present. Only the tidal freshwater locations in western Washington list Eleocharis palustris. Stands in Idaho and Oregon need to be evaluated.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Arid West Interior Freshwater Marsh
Group Arid West Interior Freshwater Marsh
Alliance Western Horsetail Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002760 Equisetum hyemale Wet Meadow
CEGL005258 Equisetum fluviatile - (Eleocharis palustris) Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Equisetum fluviatile Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Montana Equisetum fluviatile Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain MTNHP 2002


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Equisetum fluviatile - Carex utriculata Wm02
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: MacKenzie, W. H., and J. R. Moran. 2004. Wetlands of British Columbia: A guide to identification. Land Management Handbook No. 52. Research Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Lands, Victoria, BC. 287 pp.
Related Concept Name: Equisetum fluviatile Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 1993. Riparian plant associations on the national forests of eastern Washington - Draft version 1. USDA Forest Service, Colville National Forest, Colville, WA. 203 pp.
Related Concept Name: Equisetum fluviatile Community Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Boggs, K. 2000. Classification of community types, successional sequences and landscapes of the Copper River Delta, Alaska. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-469. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. March 2000. 244 pp.
Related Concept Name: Equisetum fluviatile Emergent Wetland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Willoughby, M. G., C. Stone, C. Hincz, D. Moisey, G. Ehlert, and D. Lawrence. 2004. Guide to range plant community types and carrying capacity for the dry and central mixedwood subregions in Alberta. Fourth Approximation. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Public Lands and Forests Division, Edmonton, AB. 245 pp.
Related Concept Name: Equisetum fluviatile Habitat Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.
Related Concept Name: Equisetum fluviatile community type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES200.877 Temperate Pacific Freshwater Emergent Marsh
CES306.812 Rocky Mountain Alpine-Montane Wet Meadow


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (01Feb1996)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AK, ID, MT, OR, WA
Canadian Province Distribution: AB, BC
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This emergent wetland herbaceous vegetation is known from the Columbia River tidal surge plain in western Washington, and non-tidal locations in eastern Washington, as well as in Oregon, Idaho, Montana and possibly British Columbia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Division
Province Name: Pacific Lowland Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Willamette Valley and Puget Trough Section
Section Code: 242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Rocky Mountain Front Section
Section Code: M332C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands are characterized by Equisetum fluviatile with 30-100% cover. Stands tend to be species-poor. Other species present can include Glyceria grandis, Alopecurus aequalis, Carex spp., Eleocharis palustris, Typha spp., and Scirpus and/or Schoenoplectus spp. Stands at lower elevations (Columbia River Surge Plain) had higher species diversity (n=18 for all sampled stands combined) than those at higher elevations (n=3 eastern Washington and Montana). In Alberta, it often forms open monotypic stands in the deepest zone of emergent vegetation, developing a denser cover moving in shore. Typically there then follows a transition zone of mixed Equisetum fluviatile and Carex spp. that leads to a zone of shoreline sedges, usually Carex aquatilis, Carex rostrata, and/or Carex utriculata.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Equisetum fluviatile G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This is an emergent wetland community occurring on seasonally to permanently flooded edges of lakes and ponds, along tidally influenced plains of larger rivers, calm backwater areas of rivers and streams, and in watered abandoned channels. It occurs from sea level to 1340 m (0-4390 feet) in elevation. Water depths range from below the soil surface to 0.5 m (1.5 feet) deep. Soils are fine-textured silts, clays and muck. Mineral soils often have layers of organic accumulation. Along the Columbia River Gorge, stands occur on river and slough channels on sand and silt and are flooded by freshwater during most high tides. Inland, stands occur at the edges of slow-moving meander curves in rivers and in shallow water and wet ground on the margins of lakes and ponds, stock ponds and reservoirs.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 26May2006
Element Description Author(s): G. Kittel and L. Allen

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • ANHIC [Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre]. No date. Community database files. Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, Parks and Protected Areas Division, Alberta Community Development, Edmonton.

  • Boggs, K. 2000. Classification of community types, successional sequences and landscapes of the Copper River Delta, Alaska. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-469. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. March 2000. 244 pp.

  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Bursik, R. J., and R. K. Moseley. 1995. Ecosystem conservation strategy for Idaho Panhandle peatlands. Cooperative project between Idaho Panhandle National Forests and Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Conservation Data Center, Boise. 28 pp. plus appendix.

  • Christy, J. A., and J. A. Putera. 1993. Lower Columbia River Natural Area Inventory, 1992. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 75 pp.

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • Hansen, P., K. Boggs, and R. Pfister. 1991. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in Montana. Unpublished draft version prepared for Montana Riparian Association, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula. 478 pp.

  • Hop, K., M. Reid, J. Dieck, S. Lubinski, and S. Cooper. 2007. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, WI. 131 pp. plus Appendices A-L.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 1993. Riparian plant associations on the national forests of eastern Washington - Draft version 1. USDA Forest Service, Colville National Forest, Colville, WA. 203 pp.

  • Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.

  • MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 2002b. List of ecological communities for Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, Helena, MT.

  • MacKenzie, W. H., and J. R. Moran. 2004. Wetlands of British Columbia: A guide to identification. Land Management Handbook No. 52. Research Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Lands, Victoria, BC. 287 pp.

  • Reid, M. S., S. V. Cooper, and G. Kittel. 2004. Vegetation classification of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. Final report for USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, International Peace Park Mapping Project. NatureServe, Arlington VA.

  • Rice, P. M., E. W. Schweiger, W. Gustafson, C. Lea, D. Manier, D. Shorrock, B. Frakes, and L. O?Gan. 2012c. Vegetation classification and mapping project report, Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site. Natural Resource Report NPS/ROMN/NRR--2012/589. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 176 pp.

  • Shephard, M. E. 1995. Plant community ecology and classification of the Yakutat Foreland, Alaska. R10-TP-56. USDA Forest Service, Alaska Region. 213 pp. plus appendices.

  • Titus, J. H., J. A. Christy, D. Vander Schaaf, J. S. Kagan, and E. R. Alverson. 1996. Native wetland, riparian, and upland plant communities and their biota in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Report to the Environmental Protection Agency, Region X, Seattle, WA. Willamette Basin Geographic Initiative. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, The Nature Conservancy, Portland, OR.

  • Viereck, L. A., C. T. Dyrness, A. R. Batten, and K. J. Wenzlick. 1992. The Alaska vegetation classification. General Technical Report PNW-GTR286. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. 278 pp.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.

  • Willoughby, M. G., C. Stone, C. Hincz, D. Moisey, G. Ehlert, and D. Lawrence. 2004. Guide to range plant community types and carrying capacity for the dry and central mixedwood subregions in Alberta. Fourth Approximation. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Public Lands and Forests Division, Edmonton, AB. 245 pp.


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