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Quercus alba - Quercus velutina - Carya (ovata, alba) - Pinus sp. Forest
Translated Name: White Oak - Black Oak - (Shagbark Hickory, Mockernut Hickory) - Pine species Forest
Common Name: Southern Appalachian Dry-Mesic White Oak - Hickory Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007231
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This dry-mesic upland forest of the southern Appalachians and Cumberland Plateau/Southern Ridge and Valley is dominated by Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, and several Carya spp. (Carya ovata, Carya alba, Carya glabra, Carya pallida) and contains a variable amount of Pinus virginiana or Pinus taeda. Liquidambar styraciflua can also be important in some examples. Several other Quercus spp. may be present in the canopy (Quercus falcata, Quercus stellata, Quercus coccinea, Quercus muehlenbergii, and Quercus rubra). The understory contains Acer rubrum and Oxydendrum arboreum. In the Ridge and Valley of northeastern Monroe County, Tennessee, this type occurs as disturbed stands with sparse shrub and herb strata. At Chickamauga-Chattanooga National Military Park, this association occurs in sheltered locations on a sandstone ridge that forms the structural spine of Moccasin Bend.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Described from Tellico Pilot Project (Ridge and Valley, northeastern Monroe County, Tennessee; 32 stands sampled), where this type occurs as disturbed stands with sparse shrub and herb strata (Andreu and Tukman 1995). Pinus virginiana is included in the name as a placeholder to indicate the relative xeric nature of this forest until more information is available to define understory indicator species. There is a slight possibility that this association may occur in far southwestern Virginia. Related vegetation in Virginia is currently treated as Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra - Carya ovalis / Carex pensylvanica - (Calamagrostis porteri) Forest (CEGL008516) or Quercus alba - Quercus prinus - Carya glabra / Cornus florida / Vaccinium pallidum Forest (CEGL008515).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group South-Central Interior Oak Forest & Woodland
Alliance Southeastern Black Oak - Hickory Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL007233 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya ovalis / Acer saccharum / Polystichum acrostichoides Forest
CEGL007240 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya ovata / Cercis canadensis - Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Quercus alba - Quercus velutina - Carya (ovata, alba, glabra) - Pinus sp. Forest Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
South Carolina Oak - hickory forest Broader   Nelson 1986
Tennessee Quercus alba - Quercus velutina - Carya (ovata, alba, glabra) - Pinus sp. Forest Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Quercus alba - Carya (ovata, tomentosa, glabra) - Pinus virginiana (47)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Andreu, M. G., and M. L. Tukman. 1995. Forest communities of the Tellico Lake Area, East Tennessee. M.F. project report, Duke University, School of the Environment. Durham, NC. 66 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Dry-Mesic Oak--Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: IA6i. Interior Upland Dry-Mesic Oak - Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Mixed Oak - Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.
Related Concept Name: Oak - Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Oberholster, C. 1993. Preliminary list of natural communities of Alabama. Unpublished document. Alabama Department Conservation and Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Section, Montgomery, AL. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: White Oak - Northern Red Oak, RV
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Pyne, M. 1994. Tennessee natural communities. Unpublished document. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Ecology Service Division, Nashville. 7 pp.
Related Concept Name: White Oak: 53
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.359 Allegheny-Cumberland Dry Oak Forest and Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (14Aug1997)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ALpotentially occurs, GA, KYpotentially occurs, NCpotentially occurs, SCpotentially occurs, TN
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs in the Southern Ridge and Valley and Cumberland Plateau province of Tennessee and may occur in Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Alabama and Virginia, as well.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: 221J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this upland forest are dominated by Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, and several Carya spp. (Carya ovata, Carya alba, Carya glabra, Carya pallida) and can contain a variable amount of Pinus virginiana or Pinus taeda. Several other Quercus spp. may be present in the canopy (Quercus falcata, Quercus stellata, and Quercus coccinea). Liquidambar styraciflua can also be important in some examples. In addition, Pinus strobus may comprise a small part of the canopy (in the Tellico examples). The canopy is generally closed (>75% cover) with gaps resulting from natural disturbance (i.e., mudslides, fire). Other frequently occurring species but in low percent coverage are Liriodendron tulipifera, Carya alba, Quercus stellata, Carya glabra, Quercus coccinea, Acer saccharum, Fraxinus americana, and Pinus echinata. Other canopy species do occur, but less frequently. The subcanopy has a percent cover of less than 40%. Frequently occurring subcanopy species may include Quercus alba, Oxydendrum arboreum, Cornus florida, Fraxinus americana, and Carya glabra. The shrub and herbaceous layers are sparse. The shrub layer will contain small stems of the canopy and subcanopy species and may contain shrubs such as Vaccinium arboreum and Frangula caroliniana. Other species that may be found in the herbaceous layer are Rosa sp., Rubus sp., Verbesina occidentalis, Aureolaria virginica, Chimaphila maculata, Desmodium sp., Pleopeltis polypodioides ssp. polypodioides, Polystichum acrostichoides, and Rudbeckia hirta. Lonicera japonica is an exotic species and, when it was found in this community, it has an average cover of approximately 30%. This may be a problem for the regeneration of these stands.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carya ovata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Quercus alba G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus coccinea G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus falcata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus stellata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus velutina G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus virginiana G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Acer saccharum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Cornus florida G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Juniperus virginiana G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Acer saccharum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Cornus florida G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Juniperus virginiana G4 Needle-leaved tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Lonicera japonica G4 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia G4 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Toxicodendron radicans G4 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Carya ovata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Fraxinus americana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Short shrub/sapling    
 
 


Vegetation Structure
Stratum Growth Form
Height of Stratum (m)
Cover
Class
%
Min
Cover %
Max
Cover %
Tree canopy Broad-leaved deciduous tree
 
 
 
 
Tree subcanopy Broad-leaved deciduous tree
 
 
 
 
Tall shrub/sapling Shrub
 
 
 
 
Short shrub/sapling Shrub
 
 
 
 
Herb (field) Herb
 
 
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: In the Tellico study area, this forest generally occurs on southerly slopes with elevation between 250 and 305 m (820-1000 feet). Topographical position ranges from low slope to high slope. Slopes range from gentle to very steep (0-40+). Unlike Quercus alba - Quercus rubra communities, these stands are uncommon on the highly dissected knobs. In the remainder of the study area, however, they are common. The dry-mesic nature of these stands probably results from a combination of southerly aspect and dry soil conditions. These communities are associated with a wide variety of soils. Many stands are underlain by soils derived in residuum from calcareous shale and calcareous sandstone of the Middle Ordovician. These soils are slightly to very acidic and well-drained. Soil series of this type are Dandridge (Lithic Ruptic-Alfic Eutrochrepts), Tellico (Typic Rhododults), and Steekee (Ruptic-Ultic Dystrochrepts). These soils are slightly to very acidic and well-drained to very well-drained. Average depth of solum ranges from 43 cm (17 inches) (Dandridge series) to 147 cm (58 inches) (Tellico series). Other soils associated with these stands include Typic Hapludults weather from limestone (Bland series) and Paleudults on terraces and foot slopes formed from colluvium and alluvium (Etowah).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: The presence of Pinus virginiana, Pinus taeda, and Liquidambar styraciflua in the canopy indicates disturbance. Natural disturbances in this area include fire and mudslides. Anthropogenic disturbances include logging and grazing.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A. Andreu, mod. M. Pyne and T. Govus
Element Description Edition Date: 31Oct2006
Element Description Author(s): M. Andreu, M. Tukman, M. Pyne and T. Govus
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Aug1997

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.

  • Andreu, M. G., and M. L. Tukman. 1995. Forest communities of the Tellico Lake Area, East Tennessee. M.F. project report, Duke University, School of the Environment. Durham, NC. 66 pp. plus appendices.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Oberholster, C. 1993. Preliminary list of natural communities of Alabama. Unpublished document. Alabama Department Conservation and Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Section, Montgomery, AL. 6 pp.

  • Pyne, M. 1994. Tennessee natural communities. Unpublished document. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Ecology Service Division, Nashville. 7 pp.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.


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