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Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor - (Liquidambar styraciflua) Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Pin Oak - Swamp White Oak - (Sweetgum) Swamp Forest
Common Name: Pin Oak Mixed Hardwood Depression Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL002432
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This pin oak - swamp white oak forest community type is found in the central United States. Stands occur on wet, poorly drained depressions and contain a closed to partially open canopy dominated by Quercus palustris and Acer rubrum. Oaks should comprise at least 25% of the dominance in a stand. Other typical canopy associates may dominate, including Liquidambar styraciflua, Nyssa sylvatica, and Quercus bicolor. Other wetland hardwood species can occur, including Acer saccharinum, Betula nigra, Quercus macrocarpa, and Quercus rubra. Shrub and vine species are variable and may include Cornus spp., Lindera benzoin, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Sambucus canadensis. Herbaceous species also vary widely. Herbaceous species noted from a site in the Western Allegheny Plateau include Cinna arundinacea (dominant), with other associates including Carex blanda, Carex laxiculmis, Carex rosea, Elymus riparius, Elymus virginicus, Cardamine bulbosa, Cardamine pensylvanica, Claytonia virginica, Oxalis violacea, and Podophyllum peltatum.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: Type is similar to Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor - Nyssa sylvatica - Acer rubrum Sand Wet Flatwoods Forest (CEGL002100); it should also be compared with Quercus bicolor / Vaccinium corymbosum / Carex stipata Wet Forest (CEGL006241). Related Arkansas vegetation is found in Quercus palustris Pond Forest (CEGL007809). This type is broadly defined to include stands with Quercus palustris, Quercus bicolor, and Acer rubrum as dominants, and Liquidambar styraciflua as a diagnostic species. Perhaps Quercus palustris and Quercus bicolor should together represent between 25-50% of the dominance (cover, basal area). However, there are stands in central Illinois and Missouri beyond the range of Liquidambar styraciflua that have been placed, at least temporarily, in this type. Stands in the Western Allegheny Plateau ecoregion may differ from stands further west. Stands in central Indiana and northwest Ohio (lakeplain) with Fagus grandifolia and Quercus palustris are placed in Fagus grandifolia - Acer saccharum - Quercus bicolor - Acer rubrum Flatwoods Forest (CEGL005173) or without beech, with Quercus bicolor, and till or clayey lacustrine deposits into Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor - Acer rubrum Flatwoods Forest (CEGL005037). This community is found in extreme southwest Ohio on the Illinoisan till plain. In Indiana, which also contains the Illinoisan till plain, the type occurs more widely. Bryant (1978) reports forests on "flat, poorly drained land" in an abandoned Pliocene channel of the Kentucky River in the Inner Bluegrass Subsection (222Fa). This vegetation seems to pertain to this type, and is reported to be dominated by Quercus palustris and Acer rubrum, with Fagus grandifolia, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus alba, Quercus bicolor, Quercus velutina, Nyssa sylvatica, and Fraxinus americana. According to J. Campbell (pers. comm. 2000), Bryant's (1978) type, which occurs in the Bluegrass region, belongs here. It is rarer in the Bluegrass Basin than eastward in the adjacent Knobs Transition Region.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Central Hardwood Swamp Forest
Group Central Hardwood Flatwoods & Swamp Forest
Alliance North-Central Wet Oak Flatwoods & Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002100 Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor - Nyssa sylvatica - Acer rubrum Sand Wet Flatwoods Forest
CEGL002101 Quercus palustris - (Quercus stellata) - Quercus pagoda / Isoetes spp. Wet Forest
CEGL002102 Quercus phellos - (Quercus lyrata) / Carex spp. - Leersia spp. Pond Forest
CEGL002140 Quercus macrocarpa - Quercus bicolor - (Celtis occidentalis) Woodland
CEGL002406 Quercus palustris - (Quercus bicolor) / Carex crinita / Sphagnum spp. Wet Forest
CEGL004422 Quercus bicolor - Fraxinus pennsylvanica / Carex spp. Wet Forest
CEGL005037 Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor - Acer rubrum Flatwoods Forest
CEGL005173 Fagus grandifolia - Acer saccharum - Quercus bicolor - Acer rubrum Flatwoods Forest
CEGL006241 Quercus bicolor / Vaccinium corymbosum / Carex stipata Wet Forest
CEGL007399 Quercus palustris - (Fraxinus nigra) / Lindera benzoin / Carex bromoides Wet Forest
CEGL007809 Quercus palustris Pond Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Pin Oak Mixed Hardwood Forest Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Illinois Wet Floodplain Forest (S) Intersects   White and Madany 1978
Illinois Wet-Mesic Floodplain Forest (N) Intersects   White and Madany 1978
Indiana Forest - Floodplain Wet-Mesic Broader   Homoya et al. 1988
Iowa Pin Oak Swamp Equivalent Certain INAI
Kentucky Wet Depression/Sinkhole Forest Broader   Evans 1991
Missouri Wet Bottomland Forest Broader   Nelson 1985
Ohio Maple-Ash-Oak Swamp Broader   ONHD unpubl. data
Tennessee Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor - (Liquidambar styraciflua) Mixed Hardwood Forest Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data
West Virginia Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor - (Liquidambar styraciflua) Mixed Hardwood Forest Equivalent Certain WVNHP unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Bottomland Oak - Hardwood Palustrine Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
Related Concept Name: CT IX Quercus palustrus (sic), Acer rubrum, Nyssa sylvatica, Liquidambar styraciflua
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Badger, K. S., J. Taylor, B. Jones, and M. Shell. 1997. Mammoth Cave National Park forest vegetation study. Cooperative Agreement No. CA-5530-3-9001, Subagreement No. CA-5530-3-9003. Ball State University, Muncie, IN.
Related Concept Name: Maple-Ash-Oak Swamps
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.
Related Concept Name: Pin Oak - Red Maple - Elm - Sweet Gum Associes
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Braun, E. L. 1936. Forests of the Illinoian till plain of southwestern Ohio. Ecological Monographs 6:90-149.
Related Concept Name: Wet Bottomland Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Nelson, P. W. 1985. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Jefferson City. 197 pp. Revised edition, 1987.
Related Concept Name: Wet Depression/Sinkhole Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Evans, M. 1991. Kentucky ecological communities. Draft report to the Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission. 19 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.018 Central Interior Highlands and Appalachian Sinkhole and Depression Pond
CES202.700 North-Central Interior Wet Flatwoods


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G4 (25Feb2000)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Many stands have been drained and converted to agriculture (M. Leahy pers. comm. 1999).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DE, IA, IL, IN, KY, MO, OH, PApotentially occurs, TNpotentially occurs, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This pin oak - swamp white oak forest is found in the central United States, ranging from Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee east in a band to southwestern Ohio and possibly to Pennsylvania and West Virginia. It is also reported from Delaware.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 221H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Ozark Highlands Section
Section Code: 222A Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Upper Gulf Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 222C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Shawnee Hills Section
Section Code: 222D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Bluegrass Section
Section Code: 222F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Till Plains, Oak-Hickory Section
Section Code: 222G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Till Plains, Beech-Maple Section
Section Code: 222H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Lower Mississippi Riverine Forest Province
Province Code: 234 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Mississippi Alluvial Basin Section
Section Code: 234A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Prairie Division
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Temperate) Province
Province Code: 251 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Dissected Till Plains Section
Section Code: 251C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Ozark Broadleaf Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Boston Mountains Section
Section Code: M222A Occurrence Status: Possible


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands contain a closed to partially open canopy dominated by Quercus palustris and Acer rubrum. Oaks should comprise at least 25% of the dominance in a stand. Other typical canopy associates may dominate, including Liquidambar styraciflua, Nyssa sylvatica, and Quercus bicolor. Other wetland hardwood species can occur, including Acer saccharinum, Betula nigra, Quercus macrocarpa, and Quercus rubra. Shrub and vine species are variable and may include Cornus spp., Lindera benzoin, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Sambucus canadensis. Herbaceous species also vary widely [see Anderson (1996) maple-ash-oak type for a list of species]. Some herbs reported from this or related vegetation in the bluegrass basin of Kentucky by Bryant (1978) include Lycopus virginicus, Alisma subcordatum, Ludwigia alternifolia, Penthorum sedoides, Polygala sanguinea, Polygala verticillata, Polygonum sagittatum, Conoclinium coelestinum (= Eupatorium coelestinum), Eupatorium perfoliatum, Mimulus ringens, Liparis liliifolia, Platanthera peramoena, Saururus cernuus, Ophioglossum engelmannii, Carex squarrosa, Scirpus atrovirens, Juncus effusus, Eleocharis spp., and Luzula sp. This more acidic swamp vegetation would be unusual in the Central Bluegrass, but occurs more frequently in the Knobs Transition Region (Meijer et al. 1981).


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community is found on flat, poorly drained areas (or in wet, poorly drained depressions). Many stands are seasonally wet, with a seasonally saturated hydrology. Soils are often fine-grained (silts and clays) of lacustrine origin. It is primarily, but not exclusively, found in unglaciated terrain. Habitat in Kentucky includes terraces which are not frequently flooded, or in upland swales in the Karst Plain.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
Element Description Edition Date: 30May2007
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen and L.A. Sneddon
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Feb2000

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Anderson, D. M. 1982. Plant communities of Ohio: A preliminary classification and description. Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus, OH. 182 pp.

  • Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.

  • Badger, K. S., J. Taylor, B. Jones, and M. Shell. 1997. Mammoth Cave National Park forest vegetation study. Cooperative Agreement No. CA-5530-3-9001, Subagreement No. CA-5530-3-9003. Ball State University, Muncie, IN.

  • Braun, E. L. 1936. Forests of the Illinoian till plain of southwestern Ohio. Ecological Monographs 6:90-149.

  • Bryant, W. S. 1978. An unusual forest type, hydro-mesophytic, for the Inner Bluegrass region of Kentucky. Castanea 43:129-137.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Evans, M. 1991. Kentucky ecological communities. Draft report to the Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission. 19 pp.

  • Evans, M., B. Yahn, and M. Hines. Kentucky ecological communities. 2009. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.

  • INAI [Iowa Natural Areas Inventory]. No date. Vegetation classification of Iowa. Iowa Natural Areas Inventory, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines.

  • Leahy, Mike. Personal communication. Missouri Natural Heritage Database, Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City.

  • Meijer, W., J. J. N. Campbell, H. Setser, and L. E. Meade. 1981. Swamp forests on high terrace deposits in the bluegrass and knobs regions of Kentucky. Castanea 46:122-135.

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • Nelson, P. 2010. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Conservation, Jefferson City.

  • Nelson, P. W. 1985. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Jefferson City. 197 pp. Revised edition, 1987.

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • Pyne, M., E. Lunsford Jones, and R. White. 2010. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Mammoth Cave National Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 334 pp.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date (b). Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.

  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.


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