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Juniperus virginiana / Dasiphora fruticosa / Carex flava - Carex tetanica Fen
Translated Name: Eastern Red-cedar / Shrubby-cinquefoil / Yellow Sedge - Rigid Sedge Fen
Common Name: Pasture Fen
Unique Identifier: CEGL006357
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association is a saturated wetland of turfy mineral soil occurring over calcareous bedrock, a fen supporting a number of calciphitic species. It occurs in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. It varies in appearance from an open shrubland to open herbaceous vegetation. The tall-shrub layer, when present, is 2-5 m in height with 20% cover or less. Typical tall shrubs include Cornus amomum, Juniperus virginiana, and Toxicodendron vernix. Typical short shrubs include Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Spiraea tomentosa, Spiraea alba var. latifolia, and Lyonia ligustrina. Other characteristic, often calciphilic, shrubs include Salix candida and Salix discolor. Invasive shrubs may be locally abundant in some fens, especially Rosa multiflora and Elaeagnus umbellata. The herbaceous layer is greater than 75% cover (often near 100%). Dominant herb species include Packera aurea, Parnassia glauca, Thelypteris palustris, Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, Onoclea sensibilis, Juncus subcaudatus, Solidago rugosa, Carex stricta, Dryopteris cristata, and Juncus dudleyi. Other associates include Juncus nodosus, Equisetum fluviatile, Sisyrinchium angustifolium, Solidago uliginosa, Eupatorium maculatum, Liatris spicata, Spiranthes lucida, Rudbeckia fulgida, Pedicularis canadensis, and Pedicularis lanceolata. A number of calciphilic herb species are often present at low cover values, including Lobelia kalmii, Epilobium strictum, Carex tetanica, Carex flava, Juncus brachycephalus, Bromus kalmii, Cypripedium parviflorum, Geum rivale, and Castilleja coccinea. Lythrum salicaria can be an abundant weed species in some fens. This vegetation has been generally affected by grazing in the past, which in some cases continues to the present, and as such this vegetation is known locally as a pasture fen.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Edinger et al.'s (2002) Rich Shrub Fen has been crosswalked to this association (as well as four others), in which case the range would extend to New York.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.2 - Temperate to Polar Bog & Fen
Division 2.C.2.Na - North American Bog & Fen
Macrogroup North American Boreal & Subboreal Alkaline Fen
Group North-Central Interior & Appalachian Alkaline Fen
Alliance Lower New England Calcareous Sedge Shrub Fen

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006103 Morella pensylvanica - Dasiphora fruticosa / Carex sterilis - Carex flava Fen
CEGL006448 Vernonia noveboracensis - Thelypteris palustris - Symplocarpus foetidus Seepage Meadow



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
New York Rich shrub fen Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Poison Sumac - Red-cedar - Bayberry Fen Broader   Fike 1999



Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.607 North-Central Appalachian Seepage Fen


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1G2 (23Jan1998)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This association is restricted to saturated wetlands of turfy mineral soil occurring over calcareous bedrock in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and possibly New York. There are 10-20 estimated occurrences in New Jersey and possibly the same number from Pennsylvania. These fens are 0.1-1.5 acres in size, with a total of 20-40 acres known from New Jersey. The total potential acreage of this type is well below 200 acres rangewide.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NJ, NY, PA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association occurs in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This association varies in appearance from an open shrubland to open herbaceous vegetation. The tall-shrub layer, when present, is 2-5 m in height with 20% cover or less. Typical tall shrubs include Cornus amomum, Juniperus virginiana, and Toxicodendron vernix. Typical short shrubs include Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Spiraea tomentosa, Spiraea alba var. latifolia, and Lyonia ligustrina. Other characteristic, often calciphilic, shrubs include Salix candida and Salix discolor. Invasive shrubs may be locally abundant in some fens, especially Rosa multiflora and Elaeagnus umbellata. The herbaceous layer is greater than 75% cover (often near 100%). Dominant herb species include Packera aurea (= Senecio aureus), Parnassia glauca, Thelypteris palustris, Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, Onoclea sensibilis, Juncus subcaudatus, Solidago rugosa, Carex stricta, Dryopteris cristata, and Juncus dudleyi. Other associates include Juncus nodosus, Equisetum fluviatile, Sisyrinchium angustifolium, Solidago uliginosa, Eupatorium maculatum, Liatris spicata, Spiranthes lucida, Rudbeckia fulgida, Pedicularis canadensis, and Pedicularis lanceolata. A number of calciphilic herb species are often present at low cover values, including Lobelia kalmii, Epilobium strictum, Carex tetanica, Carex flava, Juncus brachycephalus, Bromus kalmii, Cypripedium parviflorum, Geum rivale, and Castilleja coccinea. Lythrum salicaria can be an abundant weed species in some fens.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Cornus amomum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Juniperus virginiana G1 Needle-leaved tree Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Toxicodendron vernix G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Spiraea tomentosa G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda G1 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Castilleja coccinea G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lobelia kalmii G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Packera aurea G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Parnassia glauca G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Trollius laxus ssp. laxus G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Thelypteris palustris G1 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex stricta G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex tetanica G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Juncus subcaudatus G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Trollius laxus ssp. laxus
  (Spreading Globeflower)
G5T3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These wetlands occur as small patches where calcareous groundwater discharges to the surface. They typically occur along the toeslope of ridges, in association with limestone and calcareous siltstone. Soils vary from silt loams to shallow mucky peat.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This vegetation has been generally affected by grazing in the past, which in some cases continues to the present, and as such this vegetation is known locally as a pasture fen.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 22Jun2006
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Jun2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): L.A. Sneddon, mod. S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. Eastman, L. A. Sneddon, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 2 volumes.

  • Radis, R. 1986. Rare and endangered plant species within the New Jersey portion of the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report. National Park Service. Philadelphia, PA.


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