NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Pinus strobus - Acer rubrum / Spiraea alba var. latifolia / Sanguisorba canadensis Woodland
Translated Name: Eastern White Pine - Red Maple / Broadleaf Meadowsweet / Canadian Burnet Woodland
Common Name: Southern Blue Ridge Mafic Woodland Seep
Unique Identifier: CEGL004994
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This mixed woodland occupies mafic seepage wetlands of the Southern Blue Ridge plateau in Virginia and possibly North Carolina. Dominant trees are Acer rubrum, Pinus strobus, and less frequently Pinus rigida in open (25-60% canopy cover) stands. The subcanopy of well-developed or mature stands is primarily Acer rubrum. Shrub layers are moderately dense to dense (40-80% cover); characteristic shrubs include Spiraea alba var. latifolia, Alnus serrulata, Kalmia latifolia, Vaccinium corymbosum, Physocarpus opulifolius, Rhododendron viscosum, Lyonia ligustrina, and Spiraea tomentosa. Herbaceous cover is variable and includes a number of species indicative if mafic conditions, particularly Sanguisorba canadensis, Viola walteri, Helenium brevifolium, and a narrow-leaved, apparently undescribed, Aster taxon related to Symphyotrichum puniceum (= Aster puniceus). Other typical herbs include Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Osmunda cinnamomea, Solidago uliginosa, Oxypolis rigidior, Thalictrum pubescens, Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, Viola cucullata, Rubus hispidus, and Scirpus expansus.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Central Hardwood Swamp Forest
Group Central Interior-Appalachian Seepage Swamp
Alliance Appalachian-Piedmont Red Maple - Blackgum Seepage Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Pinus strobus / Alnus serrulata - Physocarpus opulifolius / Solidago patula - Parnassia grandifolia Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Pinus strobus - Acer rubrum / Spiraea alba var. latifolia / Sanguisorba canadensis Woodland
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.
Related Concept Name: Pinus strobus / Physocarpus opulifolius - Rhamnus alnifolia / Parnassia grandifolia Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Grossman, D. H., K. Lemon Goodin, and C. L. Reuss, editors. 1994. Rare plant communities of the conterminous United States: An initial survey. The Nature Conservancy. Arlington, VA. 620 pp.
Related Concept Name: Mafic Fen / Seep
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.300 Southern and Central Appalachian Bog and Fen
CES202.317 Southern Appalachian Seepage Wetland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (18Feb2010)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This community is documented only from The Glades, Grayson County, Virginia, and from Buffalo Mountain in Floyd County, Virginia, but it may also occur on other mafic and ultramafic bedrock areas in Virginia, and possibly in serpentine areas of southeastern Pennsylvania and Maryland. This wetland occurs as small patches within a matrix of mesic mixed hardwoods. The known occurrences are small; total acreage is probably less than 50 acres. This community is threatened by invasion of the exotic shrub Spiraea japonica.

It is restricted to an unusual edaphic situation, shallow soil seepage over ultramafic rock in the Southern Blue Ridge, and is unlikely to be found to be more common. Total area covered by this community is probably less than 40 hectares (less than 100 acres). Known examples at The Glades are not guaranteed permanent protection and are vulnerable to destruction or alteration. All of the known occurrences have been disturbed to some degree by logging and/or grazing. Fire may have once been an important ecological process in the maintenance of this community type.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NCpotentially occurs, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is known from the southern Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia; it may also occur in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Maryland.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This community generally occurs as a woodland having a somewhat stunted, open (25-60% cover) canopy of Pinus strobus and Acer rubrum. Pinus rigida is an occasional canopy associate, probably indicative of past fires. A subcanopy tree layer is often absent or, where present, dominated by Acer rubrum. Shrub layers are moderately dense to dense (40-80% cover); characteristic shrubs include Spiraea alba var. latifolia, Alnus serrulata, Kalmia latifolia, Vaccinium corymbosum, Physocarpus opulifolius, Rhododendron viscosum, Lyonia ligustrina, Rhamnus alnifolia, and Spiraea tomentosa. The herbaceous layer includes Glyceria striata, Juncus subcaudatus, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Osmunda cinnamomea, Solidago uliginosa, Oxypolis rigidior, Thalictrum pubescens, Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, Rubus hispidus, Viola cucullata, Eleocharis tenuis, Cirsium muticum, Dichanthelium dichotomum, Houstonia caerulea, Oenothera perennis, Parnassia grandifolia, Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (= Aster novi-belgii), Carex atlantica, Aconitum uncinatum, Castilleja coccinea, Rhynchospora alba, Scirpus expansus, and Dichanthelium clandestinum. Herb cover may be dense in small openings, but only moderate in shaded microhabitats. Species indicative of mafic conditions include Sanguisorba canadensis, Viola walteri, Helenium brevifolium, Parnassia grandifolia, and a narrow-leaved, apparently undescribed Aster taxon related to Symphyotrichum puniceum (= Aster puniceus).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Pinus strobus G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Spiraea alba var. latifolia G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Helenium brevifolium G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lilium grayi G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Parnassia grandifolia G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Sanguisorba canadensis G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Trillium pusillum var. 1 G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex sp. 2 G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Carex sp. 2
  (Fen Sedge)
G1  
Lilium grayi
  (Gray's Lily)
G3  
Parnassia grandifolia
  (Largeleaf Grass-of-Parnassus)
G3  
Trillium pusillum var. 1
  (Interior Least Trillium)
G3T2Q  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occurs in seepage areas on mineral soil weathered from amphibolite and ultramafic rocks of the Southern Blue Ridge. Occurrences are generally linear, following braided, rocky drainages with internal hummocks of organic-rich soil.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G.P. Fleming
Element Description Edition Date: 18Feb2010
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Fleming and K.D. Patterson
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18Feb2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley, mod. K. Patterson

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • Grossman, D. H., K. Lemon Goodin, and C. L. Reuss, editors. 1994. Rare plant communities of the conterminous United States: An initial survey. The Nature Conservancy. Arlington, VA. 620 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016