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Liriodendron tulipifera - Fraxinus americana - (Aesculus flava) / Actaea racemosa - Laportea canadensis Forest
Translated Name: Tuliptree - White Ash - (Yellow Buckeye) / Black Baneberry - Canadian Woodnettle Forest
Common Name: Southern Appalachian Rich Cove Forest (Typic Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL007710
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association represents deciduous forests of concave lower slopes and flats at middle elevations (610-1370 m [2000-4500 feet]) in the Southern Blue Ridge and at low to middle elevations (200-915 m [650-3000 feet]) in the Northern Blue Ridge and adjacent Ridge and Valley. The canopy is dominated by some mixture of rich-site mesophytic species such as Fraxinus americana, Tilia americana var. heterophylla, Aesculus flava, and Magnolia acuminata, occurring with more widely tolerant tree species such as Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer rubrum, Tsuga canadensis, and Betula lenta. In stands that have been impacted by the last cycle of industrial logging (70-80 years BP), Liriodendron tulipifera may dominate. The herbaceous stratum is diverse and often very lush. Typical herbaceous species include Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Caulophyllum thalictroides, Prosartes lanuginosa (= Disporum lanuginosum), Aruncus dioicus, Adiantum pedatum, Collinsonia canadensis, Osmorhiza claytonii, and Laportea canadensis. This association is distinguished by the absence or scarcity of calciphilic species, such as Diplazium pycnocarpon, Asplenium rhizophyllum, Dryopteris goldiana, Aquilegia canadensis, Solidago flexicaulis, Deparia acrostichoides, and Cystopteris protrusa, by generally occurring at elevations above 610 m (2000 feet) (200 m at the northern end of the range), and by lacking species typical of lower elevation forests.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Deciduous cove forests are perhaps the most complex group of communities to classify in the Southern Blue Ridge, due to a combination of wide environmental range, high species richness, and high biogeographic variability. The recognition of associations based on fertility and elevation is provisional and will likely need further refinement. This association is distinguished by the absence or scarcity of calciphilic species, such as Diplazium pycnocarpon, Asplenium rhizophyllum, Dryopteris goldiana, Aquilegia canadensis, Solidago flexicaulis, Deparia acrostichoides, and Cystopteris protrusa, by generally occurring at elevations above 610 m (2000 feet), and by lacking species typical of lower elevation forests.

In a regional Southern Appalachian analysis (1134 plots from Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) for the Appalachian Trail project, 48 plots were classified as this association (Fleming and Patterson 2009a). Compared to the related Aesculus flava - Acer saccharum - (Tilia americana var. heterophylla) / Hydrophyllum canadense - Solidago flexicaulis Forest (CEGL007695), this group has a significantly lower mean elevation (736 m [2415 feet] vs. 994 m [3261 feet] for CEGL007695), and is associated with soils of somewhat lower base status. The most constant (>70%) species with mean cover >1% in the 48 analyzed plots are Liriodendron tulipifera, Fraxinus americana, Polystichum acrostichoides, Quercus rubra, Acer rubrum, Actaea racemosa, Tilia americana (both var. heterophylla and var. americana), and Amphicarpaea bracteata. The most diagnostic species (relative to similar types) are Lindera benzoin, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Liriodendron tulipifera, Actaea racemosa, Polystichum acrostichoides, and Galearis spectabilis.

Although lacking Aesculus flava north of the James River, this community type is well-represented and seems to have a remarkably consistent composition over nearly the entire length of the Blue Ridge in Virginia. These stands have all recovered from logging in the past, but remain threatened by future timber harvests because of excellent site productivity. Shade-tolerant, invasive exotics, especially Alliaria petiolata, pose a serious threat to the integrity of this community's herbaceous flora.


Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Interior-Northeastern Mesic Forest
Group Appalachian-Central Interior Mesic Forest
Alliance Southern Appalachian Mesophytic Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004982 Betula alleghaniensis - Tilia americana var. heterophylla / Acer spicatum / Ribes cynosbati / Dryopteris marginalis Forest
CEGL005222 Liriodendron tulipifera - Tilia americana var. heterophylla - Aesculus flava - Acer saccharum / (Magnolia tripetala) Forest
CEGL006186 Liriodendron tulipifera - Quercus rubra - Fraxinus americana / Asimina triloba / Actaea racemosa Forest
CEGL006237 Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana - Tilia americana - Liriodendron tulipifera / Actaea racemosa Forest
CEGL006472 Tilia americana var. heterophylla - Aesculus flava - Acer saccharum / Cystopteris bulbifera - Asarum canadense Forest
CEGL007695 Aesculus flava - Acer saccharum - (Tilia americana var. heterophylla) / Hydrophyllum canadense - Solidago flexicaulis Forest
CEGL007711 Tilia americana var. heterophylla - Fraxinus americana / Sanguinaria canadensis - (Aquilegia canadensis, Asplenium rhizophyllum) Forest
CEGL007878 Quercus rubra - Tilia americana var. heterophylla - (Halesia tetraptera var. monticola) / Collinsonia canadensis - Prosartes lanuginosa Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Rich Cove Forest (Montane Intermediate Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
Tennessee Liriodendron tulipifera - Fraxinus americana - (Tilia americana, Aesculus flava) / Actaea racemosa - Laportea canadensis Forest Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Liriodendron tulipifera - Fraxinus americana - Tilia americana / Lindera benzoin / Actaea racemosa - Laportea canadensis Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.
Related Concept Name: Liriodendron tulipifera - Fraxinus americana - Tilia americana / Lindera benzoin / Cimicifuga racemosa - Laportea canadensis Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Liriodendron tulipifera - Quercus rubra - Magnolia acuminata / Cornus florida Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Liriodendron tulipifera - Tilia americana - Fraxinus americana / Lindera benzoin / Actaea racemosa - Trillium grandiflorum Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Liriodendron tulipifera - Tilia americana - Fraxinus americana / Lindera benzoin / Trillium grandiflorum - Impatiens pallida Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Rich Cove / Slope Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Rich Cove Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Rich Cove Forest (Montane Intermediate Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Yellow-Poplar - White Oak - Northern Red Oak: 59
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.373 Southern and Central Appalachian Cove Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (20Feb2010)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This community is somewhat uncommon due to specialized habitat requirements, but is fairly widespread throughout the Southern Appalachians and southern part of the Central Appalachians. It is secure throughout its range, but susceptible to impacts by logging due to its location in accessible topographic positions.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, NC, TN, VA, WVpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association occurs in the southern and central Appalachian Mountains of eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina, northeastern Georgia, and Virginia. It appears to be most frequent on the Blue Ridge proper, with the northernmost occurrence at Harpers Ferry in Loudoun County, Virginia, but ranges into the adjacent Ridge and Valley and extreme northern part of the Cumberland Mountains in Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: In the heart of its Southern Blue Ridge range, canopies of this community are dominated by variable mixtures of nutrient-demanding mesophytic species such as Fraxinus americana, Tilia americana var. heterophylla, and Aesculus flava, in association with more wide-ranging tree species such as Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer rubrum, Tsuga canadensis, and Betula lenta. Herb layers are diverse and often very lush. Typical herbaceous species include Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Caulophyllum thalictroides, Aruncus dioicus, Adiantum pedatum, Collinsonia canadensis, Laportea canadensis, Osmorhiza claytonii, and Prosartes lanuginosa (= Disporum lanuginosum). In the Southern Blue Ridge, this association is distinguished by the scarcity of calciphilic species such as Diplazium pycnocarpon, Asplenium rhizophyllum, Dryopteris goldiana, Aquilegia canadensis, Solidago flexicaulis, Deparia acrostichoides, and Cystopteris protrusa; by generally occurring at elevations above 610 m (2000 feet); and by lacking species typical of lower elevation forests. Virginia examples are similar but lack Aesculus flava in areas north of the James River. Liriodendron tulipifera, Fraxinus americana, Tilia americana (both var. heterophylla and var. americana), and Quercus rubra are the most important canopy species. Acer saccharum, Betula lenta, Carya glabra, and Carya cordiformis are minor canopy associates. Ulmus rubra is a constant understory tree that occasionally reaches the overstory. Most occurrences have a patchy to moderately dense shrub layer dominated by Lindera benzoin (10-25% mean cover in 51 plots). The herbaceous flora is lush and forb-rich, at least early in the growing season. The most characteristic herbs in Virginia plot samples are Actaea racemosa, Arisaema triphyllum, Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis, Sanguinaria canadensis, Stellaria pubera, Osmorhiza claytonii, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Adiantum pedatum, Asarum canadense, Galearis spectabilis, Ageratina altissima var. altissima, Laportea canadensis, and Trillium grandiflorum. Species richness of 51 Virginia plots ranges from 29 to 98 taxa per 400 square meters (mean = 60).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Aesculus flava G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Betula lenta G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Fraxinus americana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Liriodendron tulipifera G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Tilia americana var. heterophylla G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Tsuga canadensis G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Tsuga caroliniana G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Ulmus rubra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Lindera benzoin G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Aconitum reclinatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Actaea racemosa G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Ageratina altissima var. altissima G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Amphicarpaea bracteata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Arisaema triphyllum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Asarum canadense G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Cardamine flagellifera G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Euphorbia purpurea G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Galearis spectabilis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Laportea canadensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Osmorhiza claytonii G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Panax quinquefolius G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Sanguinaria canadensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Stachys clingmanii G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Stellaria pubera G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Trillium grandiflorum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Trillium rugelii G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Adiantum pedatum G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex ruthii G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Aconitum reclinatum
  (White Monkshood)
G3  
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis
  (Appalachian White Snakeroot)
G5T3T4  
Cardamine flagellifera
  (Blue Ridge Bittercress)
G3  
Carex ruthii
  (Ruth's Sedge)
G3  
Euphorbia purpurea
  (Glade Spurge)
G3  
Panax quinquefolius
  (American Ginseng)
G3G4  
Stachys clingmanii
  (Clingman's Hedge-nettle)
G2  
Trillium rugelii
  (Southern Nodding Trillium)
G3  
Tsuga caroliniana
  (Carolina Hemlock)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association is characteristic of concave lower slopes and flats at middle elevations (610-1370 m [2000-4500 feet]) in the Southern Blue Ridge and at low to middle elevations (200-915 m [650-3000 feet]) in the Northern Blue Ridge and adjacent Ridge and Valley. At the northern end of the range in Virginia, maximum elevation decreases from about 760 m (2500 feet) in the Southern Blue Ridge to as low as 200 m (650 feet) at the extreme north end of the Blue Ridge in Clarke and Loudoun counties. In Virginia, stands occupy mesic sites underlain by base-rich substrates, including metabasalt (greenstone), pyroxene-bearing granites, amphibolite, calcareous sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and dolomite. These sites are mostly situated on moderately steep (mean slope = 17), straight or concave slopes with east to northeast aspects. Soils are deep, dark and fertile, with moderately high mean calcium and magnesium levels.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: The contemporary abundance of Liriodendron tulipifera in this association no doubt reflects the influence of past logging. However, it is likely that Liriodendron has always been a component of this vegetation, capable of maintaining a position in these mixed forests because of its rapid growth and superior ability to colonize light gaps caused by downfalls (Fowells 1965, Busing 1995). An abundance of Acer saccharum in the understory of some stands of this type also suggests that their composition is a temporary (though long-lasting) seral phase following extensive disturbances which favored Liriodendron tulipifera.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M.P. Schafale, mod. G. Fleming and P. Coulling
Element Description Edition Date: 22Dec2011
Element Description Author(s): G. Fleming, P. Coulling, T. Govus
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Feb2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Busing, R. F. 1995. Disturbance and population dynamics of Liriodendron tulipifera: Simulations with a spatial model of forest succession. Journal of Ecology 83:4.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • Fowells, H. A, compiler. 1965. Silvics of the forest trees of the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 271. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 762 pp.

  • Major, C. S., C. Bailey, J. Donaldson, R. McCoy, C. Nordman, M. Williams, and D. Withers. 1999. An ecological inventory of selected sites in the Cherokee National Forest. Cost Share Agreement #99-CCS-0804-001. Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, P. Townsend, and J. Foster. 2006. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients. Final Report (v.1.1). Research technical report prepared for USDI, National Park Service. USGS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. 92 pp. plus appendices.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, W. Cass, and C. Lea. 2009. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients, Version 2.0. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2009/142. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 389 pp.


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