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Quercus muehlenbergii - Quercus (shumardii, stellata) / Cercis canadensis / Viburnum rufidulum Forest
Translated Name: Chinquapin Oak - (Shumard Oak, Post Oak) / Eastern Redbud / Rusty Blackhaw Forest
Common Name: Interior Low Plateau Chinquapin Oak - Mixed Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007699
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This chinquapin oak - mixed oak forest association is found in the inner Nashville Basin of central Tennessee and related areas of the Interior Low Plateau of Kentucky, Illinois and Indiana, and in Virginia and marginally into the southern limestone/dolomite valleys of northwestern Georgia. Stands include dry to subxeric forests of flat to rolling topography. Some stands in the Shawnee Hills may have a southerly exposure with thin loess-derived soils. The vegetation is dominated by a mixture of Quercus muehlenbergii, Quercus falcata, Quercus shumardii, and Quercus stellata, with Quercus velutina in smaller amounts. Carya carolinae-septentrionalis, Carya glabra, and Fraxinus americana may also be present in the canopy, which is typically somewhat open. The relatively open subcanopy contains Acer saccharum, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus quadrangulata, Ulmus alata, Ulmus serotina, and Celtis laevigata. Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana, Viburnum rufidulum, Frangula caroliniana, Cercis canadensis, Ostrya virginiana, Sideroxylon lycioides, Prunus americana, and Prunus angustifolia are present as tall shrubs or small trees. Coverage of Juniperus in the subcanopy may be dense in some examples, but this vegetation is treated here rather than as a mixed forest. Low shrubs include Rhus aromatica, Forestiera ligustrina, Viburnum rufidulum, Hypericum frondosum, Ptelea trifoliata, and Symphoricarpos orbiculatus. Herbs present include Andropogon spp., Antennaria plantaginifolia, Symphyotrichum shortii (= Aster shortii), Cheilanthes lanosa, Cunila origanoides, Diarrhena americana, Dichanthelium boscii, Galium circaezans, Heuchera americana, Monarda fistulosa, Schizachyrium scoparium, Scutellaria ovata, Solidago missouriensis, Solidago sphacelata, and Verbesina virginica. A prominent woody vine is Bignonia capreolata. In Tennessee's Nashville Basin, this association is found over Ordovician limestones (Lebanon, Ridley) at about 200 m elevation. This type also includes examples from slopes above limestone cliffs, e.g., bordering the Ohio River in Harrison County (southern Indiana) and possibly adjacent Kentucky (the former CEGL005020), where Quercus muehlenbergii is found with Fraxinus americana and Fraxinus quadrangulata. This specific example is assumed to be compatible with Quercus muehlenbergii - Quercus (shumardii, stellata) / Cercis canadensis / Viburnum rufidulum Forest (CEGL007699).



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: See also Quercus muehlenbergii - Fraxinus quadrangulata - Juniperus virginiana Woodland Alliance (A3273) and other Quercus muehlenbergii woodland alliances. Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii / Cercis canadensis Forest (CEGL006017) is a type with a somewhat overlapping distribution, but is typically found more eastward toward and in the Appalachian region.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Chinquapin Oak - Shumard Oak - Blue Ash Alkaline Forest & Woodland
Alliance South-Central Interior Chinquapin Oak - Maple - Ash Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002075 Quercus stellata - Quercus marilandica - Carya (glabra, texana) / Vaccinium arboreum Forest
CEGL003876 Quercus imbricaria - Quercus shumardii - Quercus muehlenbergii / Celtis occidentalis / Urtica chamaedryoides Forest
CEGL006017 Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii / Cercis canadensis Forest
CEGL007808 Quercus muehlenbergii - Quercus shumardii - Carya (carolinae-septentrionalis, ovata) Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Quercus muehlenbergii - Quercus (falcata, shumardii, stellata) / Cercis canadensis / Viburnum rufidulum Forest Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Illinois Dry Upland Forest (S) Undetermined   White and Madany 1978
Indiana Forest - Upland Dry Broader   Homoya et al. 1988
Tennessee Quercus muehlenbergii - Quercus (falcata, shumardii, stellata) / Cercis canadensis / Viburnum rufidulum Forest Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Quercus shumardii - Quercus muehlenbergii / Juniperus virginiana - Viburnum rufidulum / Sanicula odorata - Bignonia capreolata Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Quercus shumardii - Quercus muhlenbergii / Juniperus virginiana - Viburnum rufidulum / Sanicula odorata - Bignonia capreolata Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: IA6j. Interior Calcareous Oak - Hickory Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: IA6l. Cedar - Oak - Hackberry Elm Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Montane Dry Calcareous Forest / Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.024 Southern Ridge and Valley Calcareous Glade and Woodland
CES202.898 Southern Interior Low Plateau Dry-Mesic Oak Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (25Feb2004)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Examples of this association in Tennessee's Nashville Basin occur in areas of rapid human population growth, and remaining unprotected examples are threatened by timber removal and land conversion. Kentucky examples are more scattered in several regions of the state, but many are small examples on isolated ridges. Some examples may be protected on TVA, Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. National Park Service lands. Some are found within the proclamation boundaries of the Daniel Boone National Forest but may lack protection. Most, if not all, high-quality examples have been eliminated or severely impacted by timber removal, grazing, soil erosion, and fire suppression. Other current threats include windthrow, microclimate modification from intensive silvicultural practices on adjacent uplands, forest type conversion, and herbicide use.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ALpotentially occurs, GA, IL, IN, KY, TN, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This chinquapin oak - mixed oak forest association is found in the inner Central Basin of central Tennessee and related areas of the Interior Low Plateau, such as the northern edge of the Pennyroyal Karst Plain of Kentucky, and Shawnee Hills in Indiana and Illinois, as well as limestone ridges in the Eastern Knobs region, the Palisades of the Inner Bluegrass, and the eastern edge of the Mississippian Plateaus region of Kentucky. In southwestern Virginia (Lee County), this forest covers large areas. It also extends marginally into the southern limestone/dolomite valleys of northwestern Georgia at Chickamauga-Chattanooga National Military Park.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Shawnee Hills Section
Section Code: 222D Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Bluegrass Section
Section Code: 222F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Southern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 231C Occurrence Status: Possible


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation is dominated by a mixture of Quercus muehlenbergii, Quercus falcata, Quercus shumardii, and Quercus stellata, with Quercus velutina in smaller amounts. Carya carolinae-septentrionalis, Carya glabra, and Fraxinus americana may also be present in the canopy, which is typically somewhat open. The relatively open subcanopy contains Acer saccharum, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus quadrangulata, Ulmus alata, Ulmus serotina, and Celtis laevigata. Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana, Viburnum rufidulum, Frangula caroliniana, Cercis canadensis, Ostrya virginiana, Sideroxylon lycioides, Prunus americana, and Prunus angustifolia are present as tall shrubs or small trees. Coverage of Juniperus in the subcanopy may be dense in some examples, but this vegetation is treated here rather than as a mixed forest. Low shrubs include Rhus aromatica, Forestiera ligustrina, Viburnum rufidulum, Hypericum frondosum, Ptelea trifoliata, and Symphoricarpos orbiculatus. Herbs present include Andropogon spp., Antennaria plantaginifolia, Symphyotrichum shortii (= Aster shortii), Cheilanthes lanosa, Cunila origanoides, Diarrhena americana, Dichanthelium boscii, Galium circaezans, Heuchera americana, Monarda fistulosa, Schizachyrium scoparium, Scutellaria ovata, Solidago missouriensis, Solidago sphacelata, and Verbesina virginica. A prominent woody vine is Bignonia capreolata. This type also includes examples from slopes above limestone cliffs along the Ohio River in Harrison County (southern Indiana) and possibly adjacent Kentucky (the former CEGL005020), where Quercus muehlenbergii is found with Fraxinus americana and Fraxinus quadrangulata.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: Stands include dry to subxeric forests of flat to rolling topography. Some stands in the Shawnee Hills may have a southerly exposure with thin loess-derived soils (TNC 1995a). In Tennessee's Nashville Basin, this association is found over Ordovician limestones (Lebanon, Ridley) at about 200 m elevation. At Chickamauga-Chattanooga National Military Park, this association occurs on the tops of gentle, low ridges in a landscape of rolling topography on shallow soils over limestone associated with the Knox Group.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M. Pyne, mod. D. Faber-Langendoen
Element Description Edition Date: 31Oct2006
Element Description Author(s): M. Pyne, D. Faber-Langendoen and T. Govus
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Feb2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.

  • Nordman, C. 2004a. Vascular plant community classification for Stones River National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 64 pp. plus appendices and CD.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1995a. A classification and description of plant communities in southern Illinois. Report by the Southern Illinois Field Office, Ullin, IL, and the Midwest Regional Office, Minneapolis, MN.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.


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